⒈ Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda
Either in their original form Church Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda the example of the Penkovskiy Papers or repackaged as articles for American newspapers and magazines. In most cases the Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda have speculated as to the existence of some kind of conspiracy, and often they have implied that Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda Commission itself was involved. There is today a different kind of McCarthyism under different Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda, and presumably there will continue to be Imagery In The Millers Tale threat of this distinctive form of slanderous bigotry so long as the Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda States permits freedom of thought and speech, or Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda bigotry itself is reduced by the rise of Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda. I was pretty much worn down. Wisner was also able to restrict newspapers from reporting about certain events. People like Henry Luce was able to censor stories that appeared too sympathetic towards the plight of Arbenz. Workplace Professionalism some Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda opponents of Joseph McCarthy had been Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda evidence Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda his homosexual activities.
The success of Communism, then, was not attributable to its message but rather to the fact that it offered people the spiritual certainty they no longer found in Christianity. All the shocking anti-Communist propaganda and shopworn tributes to democracy that America could muster would fail to arrest the Marxian surge. But if Americans filled the spiritual vacuum, if they made religious faith commensurate with military and economic power, then Communism would dissipate. Warren Hinckle has argued: "Henry Luce believed that a morally slanted press was a responsible press Life , the flagship picture book of the Luce fleet, afforded photojournalism some of its finest moments, while the text accompanying the pictures that were worth thousands of words was slanted with an ideological warp sufficient to stir Caxton in his grave.
If you are enjoying this article, please feel free to share. Many years later he revealed his role in these events: "If the director of CIA wanted to extend a present, say, to someone in Europe - a Labour leader - suppose he just thought, This man can use fifty thousand dollars, he's working well and doing a good job - he could hand it to him and never have to account to anybody There was simply no limit to the money it could spend and no limit to the people it could hire and no limit to the activities it could decide were necessary to conduct the war - the secret war It was a multinational.
Maybe it was one of the first. Journalists were a target, labor unions a particular target - that was one of the activities in which the communists spent the most money. Frank Wisner became head of this new organization and Richard Helms became his chief of operations. Mockingbird was now the responsibility of the DPP. Edgar Hoover became jealous of the CIA's growing power. He described the OPC as "Wisner's gang of weirdos" and began carrying out investigations into their past. It did not take him long to discover that some of them had been active in left-wing politics in the s.
This information was passed to who started making attacks on members of the OPC. Hoover, claimed that Caradja was a Soviet agent. McCarthy claimed that the CIA was a "sinkhole of communists" and claimed he intended to root out a hundred of them. One of his first targets was Cord Meyer , who was still working for Operation Mockingbird. The Federal Bureau of Investigation added to the smear by announcing it was unwilling to give Meyer "security clearance". However, the FBI refused to explain what evidence they had against Meyer. Allen W. Dulles and both came to his defence and refused to permit a FBI interrogation of Meyer.
Joseph McCarthy did not realise what he was taking on. Wisner unleashed Mockingbird on McCarthy. Mockingbird was very active during the overthrow of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala. People like Henry Luce was able to censor stories that appeared too sympathetic towards the plight of Arbenz. Dulles was even able to keep left-wing journalists from travelling to Guatemala. Frank Wisner was also interested in influencing Hollywood.
One was a strong tendency toward self-censorship, the result of many years' experience avoiding the commercially disastrous effects of giving offense to either domestic pressure groups like the American Legion or foreign audiences. The other was the fact that the men who ran the studios were intensely patriotic and anticommunist - they saw it as their duty to help their government defeat the Soviet threat. These people attended voluntarily and became known as "friendly witnesses". During their interviews they named nineteen people who they accused of holding left-wing views. One of those named, Bertolt Brecht , a playwright, gave evidence and then left for East Germany. In June Harnett published Red Channels , a pamphlet listing the names of writers, directors and performers who they claimed had been members of subversive organisations before the Second World War but had not so far been blacklisted.
Lee J. The blacklist is just the opening gambit - being deprived of work. Your passport is confiscated. That's minor. But not being able to move without being tailed is something else. After a certain point it grows to implied as well as articulated threats, and people succumb. My wife did, and she was institutionalized. In the HCUA did a deal with me. I was pretty much worn down. I had no money. I couldn't borrow. I had the expenses of taking care of the children.
Why am I subjecting my loved ones to this? If it's worth dying for, and I am just as idealistic as the next fellow. But I decided it wasn't worth dying for, and if this gesture was the way of getting out of the penitentiary I'd do it. I had to be employable again. For example, in June , General Ira Eaker "signed an across-the-board agreement giving Hughes a monopoly in interceptors for the U.
Air Force… despite the fact that it was in breach of the Sherman anti-monopolies act… By the end of , the war had made Hughes even richer than before. Another important figure in this conspiracy was C. When it became clear that Dwight D. Eisenhower stood a good chance of becoming president, the CIA arranged for Jackson to join his campaign. This involved Jackson writing speeches for Eisenhower.
Jackson was rewarded in February by being appointed as Special Assistant to the President. According to the Eisenhower Presidential Library files in Abilene , Kansas , Jackson's "area responsibility was loosely defined as international affairs, cold war planning, and psychological warfare. His main function was the coordination of activities aimed at interpreting world situations to the best advantage of the United States and her allies and exploiting incidents which reflected negatively on the Soviet Union , Communist China and other enemies in the Cold War. Jackson was also involved in Operation Mockingbird. This was revealed after the death of Jackson. On December 15, , Mrs. Eisenhower Library. Laraschi , was the most important CIA figure at the studio.
Laraschi was the head of foreign and domestic censorship at the studio, whose job was to "iron out any political, moral or religious problems". In a private letter to Sherman Adams , Jackson claims the role of these CIA placements was "to insert in their scripts and in their action the right ideas with the proper subtlety". Although the main objective of Operation Mockingbird was to influence the production of commercial films the CIA also occasionally initiated film projects. The best documented instance of this concerns an animated version of Animal Farm , a satirical allegory about Stalinism by George Orwell.
The book was highly popular when it was published in and it was only natural that the studios should be interested in making a film of the book. The problem for the CIA was that Orwell was a socialist whose book attacked both communism and capitalism. Therefore, it was important to make a film that restricted it to a condemnation of Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union. It was decided to get the film made in Britain to disguise CIA involvement in the project. Rochemont employed the British animation studio of husband and wife John Halas and Joy Batchelor to make the film. Most of the funding came from a CIA shell corporation, Touchstone. One unnamed member of the OPC sent a letter to John Halas called for the addition of scenes showing the other farms that represented capitalist countries in a more flattering light.
The most important demand was to change the ending of Animal Farm. The CIA did not like the scene where the pigs and dogs face a liberation-style uprising of the other animals. One of the main concerns of the CIA was the portrayal of race-relations in Hollywood movies. It was argued that the left was using this issue to undermine the idea that America was a democracy based on equal rights. Letters from Jackson sent to the producers of films called for scenes showing African Americans mixing on equal terms with whites.
Fowler is a veteran British journalist in his fifties, who has been covering the war in Vietnam for over two years. It is believed that the Pyle character is partly based on that of Edward Lansdale. Although a fairly successful novelist at the time, Greene was also employed by The Times and Le Figaro as a journalist. Between to spent a long period of time in Saigon. While it is true that Graham Greene admitted that he never had the "misfortune to meet" Lansdale, the two men did know a lot about each other.
Greene was also there having a meal with several French officers. Lansdale claims that after he and the Durdins were leaving, Greene said something in French to his companions and the men began booing him. Lansdale definitely thought that Pyle was based on him. He told Cecil B. In the book Pyle is sent to Vietnam by his government, ostensibly as a member of the American Economic Mission, but that assignment was only a cover for his real role as a CIA agent.
According to one critic "Pyle was the embodiment of well-meaning American-style politics, and he blundered through the intrigue, treachery, and confusion of Vietnamese politics, leaving a trail of blood and suffering behind him. However, according to Fowler, what the people of Vietnam really wanted was "enough rice" to eat. What is more: "They don't want to be shot at. They want one day to be much the same as another. They don't want our white skins around telling them what they want. When the book was published in the United States in it was condemned as anti-American.
Pyle Lansdale is portrayed as someone whose belief in the justice of American foreign policy allows him to ignore the appalling consequences of his actions. It was criticized by The New Yorker for portraying Americans as murderers. The director, producer and screenwriter, Joseph L. Mankiewicz was chosen to make the film of The Quiet American. The committee also called the Special Group included the CIA director, the national security adviser, and the deputy secretaries at State and Defence and had the responsibility to decide whether covert actions were "proper" and in the national interest.
It was also decided to include Richard B. Russell , chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee. However, as Allen W. Dulles was later to admit, because of "plausible deniability" planned covert actions were not referred to the Committee. Eisenhower asked Bruce to write a report on the CIA. It was presented to Eisenhower on 20th December, Bruce argued that the CIA's covert actions were "responsible in great measure for stirring up the turmoil and raising the doubts about us that exists in many countries in the world today.
He argued: "what right have we to go barging around in other countries buying newspapers and handling money to opposition parties or supporting a candidate for this, that, or the other office. It has been argued by Larry Hancock , the author of Someone Would Have Talked , that Virginia Prewett was a close associate of David Attlee Phillips and was involved in promoting the activities of Alpha 66 , led by Antonio Veciana : "Virginia Prewett appears to have been one of Phillips' significant media contacts and certainly one of the most consistent sources of media coverage for Alpha 66 activities.
Articles by Prewitt and editorials by Time-Life provided the strongest challenge to the Kennedy position on Cuba and were quite consistent with the type of embarrass and back-to-the wall agendas Veciana attributed to Maurice Bishop. Instead of moving to Washington he remained in Miami "where his contacts were". In an article on 24th September, , Hendrix was able to describe and justify the coup that overthrew Juan Bosch , the president of Dominican Republic. The only problem was the coup took place on the 25th September. Some journalists claimed that Hendrix must have got this information from the CIA.
A few hours after John F. Kennedy had been killed, Hendrix provided background information to a colleague, Seth Kantor , about Lee Harvey Oswald. This surprised Kantor because he had this information before it was released by the Federal Bureau of Investigation later that evening. William E. Kelly later explained: "Seith Kantor, a local Dallas reporter who was in the Press Bus in the motorcade, knew something was wrong as they rode through Dealey Plaza, but the bus driver refused to follow the rest of the motorcade to Parkland Hospital and instead drove to their original destination, the Dallas Trade Mart.
Once there however, Kantor got a ride to Parkand Hospital, where he interviewed a number of local Dallas officials and had a brief conversation with Jack Ruby, who had frequently fed Kantor interesting leads he developed into feature articles. Years later, in , Kantor learned that the records of one of the phone calls on that day was classified for reasons of national security, so he filed a Freedom of Information Act FOIA request and obtained them to find out the big secret. From Florida, Hendrix supplied Kantor with detailed background information on Lee Harvey Oswald, who had just been arrested and named as the chief suspect in the assassination.
When John F. Moreover, although Life had a copy of the film, it did little to maximize the return on its extraordinary investment. Specifically, it did not sell this unique property - as a film - to any broadcast media or permit it to be seen in motion, the logical way to maximize the financial return on its investment A closer look revealed something else. The film wasn't just sold to Life - the person whose name was on the agreement was C. Soon after the assassination Charles Douglas Jackson also successfully negotiated with Marina Oswald the exclusive rights to her story. This story never appeared in print.
McCone discovered that the book intended to look at his links with the Military Industrial Congress Complex. The authors also claimed that the CIA was having a major influence on American foreign policy. The book also covered the role that the CIA played in the Bay of Pigs operation, the attempts to remove President Sukarno in Indonesia and the covert operations taking place in Laos and Vietnam. The authors refused to made these changes and Random House decided to go ahead and publish the book. The CIA considered buying up the entire printing of Invisible Government but this idea was rejected when Random House pointed out that if this happened they would have to print a second edition.
McCone now formed a special group to deal with the book and tried to arrange for it to get bad reviews. It was the first full account of America's intelligence and espionage apparatus. In the book Wise and Ross argued that the "Invisible Government is made up of many agencies and people, including the intelligence branches of the State and Defense Departments, of the Army, Navy and Air Force". However, they claimed that the most important organization involved in this process was the CIA. This attempt at censorship failed and NBC went ahead and broadcast this critical documentary. He now took charge of Mockingbird.
At the end of FitzGerald discovered that Ramparts , a left-wing publication, was planning to publish that the CIA had been secretly funding the National Student Association. FitzGerald ordered Edgar Applewhite to organize a campaign against the magazine. Applewhite later told Evan Thomas for his book, The Very Best Men : "I had all sorts of dirty tricks to hurt their circulation and financing. The people running Ramparts were vulnerable to blackmail. We had awful things in mind, some of which we carried off. This dirty tricks campaign failed to stop Ramparts publishing this story in March, It named Cord Meyer as a key figure in this campaign. This included the funding of the literary journal Encounter. Braden also confessed that the activities of the CIA had to be kept secret from Congress.
As he pointed out in the article: "In the early s, when the cold war was really hot, the idea that Congress would have approved many of our projects was about as likely as the John Birch Society's approving Medicare. Meyer's role in Operation Mockingbird was further exposed in when he was accused of interfering with the publication of a book, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia by Alfred W. The publisher, who leaked the story, had been a former colleague of Meyer's when he was a liberal activist after the war. According to the Congress report published in "The CIA currently maintains a network of several hundred foreign individuals around the world who provide intelligence for the CIA and at times attempt to influence opinion through the use of covert propaganda.
These individuals provide the CIA with direct access to a large number of newspapers and periodicals, scores of press services and news agencies, radio and television stations, commercial book publishers, and other foreign media outlets. Frank Church showed that it was CIA policy to use clandestine handling of journalists and authors to get information published initially in the foreign media in order to get it disseminated in the United States.
Church quotes from one document written by the Chief of the Covert Action Staff on how this process worked page All these books eventually found their way into the American market-place. Either in their original form Church gives the example of the Penkovskiy Papers or repackaged as articles for American newspapers and magazines. Church quotes Thomas H. Church was also aware that most of these payments were not documented.
This was the main point of the Otis Pike Report. If these payments were not documented and accounted for, there must be a strong possibility of financial corruption taking place. This includes the large commercial contracts that the CIA was responsible for distributing. Church also identified E. Howard Hunt as an important figure in Operation Mockingbird. He points out how Hunt arranged for books to be reviewed by certain writers in the national press.
The first is the potential, inherent in covert media operations, for manipulating or incidentally misleading the American public. The second is the damage to the credibility and independence of a free press which may be caused by covert relationships with the U. Carl Bernstein , who had worked with Bob Woodward in the investigation of Watergate , provided further information about Operation Mockingbird in an article in The Rolling Stone in October, Bernstein claimed that over a 25 year period over American journalists secretly carried out assignments for the CIA : "Some of the journalists were Pulitzer Prize winners, distinguished reporters who considered themselves ambassadors-without-portfolio for their country.
Most were less exalted: foreign correspondents who found that their association with the Agency helped their work; stringers and freelancers who were as interested it the derring-do of the spy business as in filing articles, and, the smallest category, full-time CIA employees masquerading as journalists abroad. It is almost certain that Bernstein had encountered Operation Mockingbird while working on his Watergate investigation. On 18th September, , Orlando Letelier , who served as foreign minister under Salvador Allende , was traveling to work at the Institute of Policy Studies in Washington when a bomb was ignited under his car. Letelier and Ronni Moffitt, a 25 year old woman who was campaigning for democracy in Chile, both died of their injuries. According to Gaeton Fonzi , the author of The Last Investigation , Virginia Prewett , who was working for the Council for Inter-American Security , a right-wing think tank, attacked the journalists who assumed that Chilean generals were involved in murdering Letelier.
He had been shot in the head. Officially he had committed suicide but some people believe he was murdered. In an article in Salon Magazine , 19th March, Andrew Leonard asked: "Why did the police report say the gun wound was to the left of his head, while the autopsy reported a wound on the roof of his mouth? Why had the hard drive on his computer been erased shortly after his death? Why had Scaife assigned his No. In the early s, when the cold war was really hot, the idea that Congress would have approved many of our CIA projects was about as likely as the John Birch Society's approving Medicare.
The role of US trade unions and student bodies in Cold War, projects inspired and financed by the huge, international agency of subversion known as the Central Intelligence Agency, is now widely known in Australia. Evron M. The present volume has been made possible only by drawing upon this government research, and it is the product, therefore, of the work of many people. Both works bear all the earmarks of a USIA operation OPR since its formation in A non-profit research organisation set up by a group of social Scientists, lawyers and businessmen to help the USIA distribute more persuasive and polished literature both in the US and abroad, OPR reads and gives expert opinion on books which USIA then plants with publishers, without the sponsorship being publicized.
It employed on a part-time basis, according to Kirkpatrick, more than a hundred social scientists, many of them members of APSA. Jean J. From to she had been an intelligence research analyst in the State Department, and since she has been a consultant to OPR. Kirkpatrick has also had close connections with the USIA. This is a program under which we can have books written to our own specifications, books that would not otherwise be put out, especially those books that have strong anti-communist content, and follow other themes that are particularly useful for our program.
Under the book development program, we control the thing from the very idea down to the final edited manuscript. Levitas, conceived of the book and sold the idea to the USIA. The social connections with journalists were a crucial part of the CIA's propaganda machine. Chief among CIA friends were the Alsop brothers. Joseph Alsop wrote a column with his brother Stewart for the New York Herald Tribune and they occasionally penned articles at the suggestion of Frank Wisner, based upon classified information leaked to them. In exchange, they provided CIA friends with observations gathered on trips abroad.
Such give-and-take was not unusual among the Georgetown set in the s. Ben Bradlee, while working for the State Department as a press attache in the American embassy in Paris, produced propaganda regarding the Rosenbergs' spying conviction and death sentence in cooperation with the CIA It was a social thing, my dear fellow. Cord Meyer developed and nurtured his own friendships among journalists. He seconded the nomination of Washington Post writer Walter Pincus for membership in the Waltz Group, a Washington social organization. Pincus went on to become the Post's premier intelligence reporter. Cord also maintained friendly ties with William C.
Baggs of the Miami News and foreign-affairs writer Herb Gold. Cord's ties to academia served him when he needed favors from publishers and journalists. In some accounts, he and Time writer C. Jackson together recruited Steinem. He was also close to Chattanooga Times writer Charles Bartlett throughout his life. It never had to account for the money it spent except to the President if the President wanted to know how much money it was spending. But otherwise the funds were not only unaccountable, they were unvouchered, so there was really no means of checking them - "unvouchered funds" meaning expenditures that don't have to be accounted for If the director of CIA wanted to extend a present, say, to someone in Europe - a Labour leader - suppose he just thought, This man can use fifty thousand dollars, he's working well and doing a good job - he could hand it to him and never have to account to anybody I don't mean to imply that there were a great many of them that were handed out as Christmas presents.
They were handed out for work well performed or in order to perform work well Politicians in Europe, particularly right after the war, got a lot of money from the CIA Since it was unaccountable, it could hire as many people as it wanted. It never had to say to any committee - no committee said to it - "You can only have so many men. It made preparations therefore for every contingency. It could hire armies; it could buy banks. They set up a successful communist labor union in France right after the war. We countered it with Force Ouvriere. They set up this very successful communist labor union in Italy, and we countered it with another union We had a vast project targeted on the intellectuals - "the battle for Picasso's mind," if you will.
The communists set up fronts which they effectively enticed a great many particularly the French intellectuals to join. We tried to set up a counterfront. That doesn't mean that everybody that worked for Encounter or everybody who wrote for Encounter knew anything about it. Most of the people who worked for Encounter and all but one of the men who ran it had no idea that it was paid for by the CIA. Following the buildup of U. Writing about the connections between Michigan State University, the CIA, and the Saigon police with the help of Robert Scheer, a young investigative reporter , the Sheinbaum story was to appear in the June issue of Ramparts magazine. The article disposed that Michigan State University had been secretly used by the CIA to train Saigon police and to keep an inventory of ammunition for grenade launchers, Browning automatic rifles, and.
The problem, in Sheinbaum's view, was that such secret funding of academics to execute government programs undercut scholarly integrity. When scholars are forced into a conflict of interest, he wrote, "where is the source of serious intellectual criticism that would help us avoid future Vietnams? Frances, who appears as a character in his novel, Memoirs of Hecate County , fascinated Wilson sexually. It was the American culture. Wilson was typical of his time in condemning the commercial aspect of life in the United States as an obstacle to creating anything of artistic value. USSR in Constructio n, which presented an idealized version of the future society. But when he went to Russia, Wilson quickly realized that the Soviet Union was far from being a classless society, and Stalin, as he described him in To the Finland Station , was a terrifying barbarian.
What Russia had represented to the young Wilson was the possibility of a literary culture—and so, when T. After seeing Shakespeare and Chekhov performed on the Russian stage, Wilson was mesmerized. Even foreign classics in his assessment were of higher quality. It used to be very much less interesting than ours, but it is at present incomparably better. Our stage has been demoralized by Hollywood.
Londoners—again, like the Russians—have needed the theater for gaiety, for color. Those wonderful performances would soon come to an end, destroyed by the new Stalinist restrictions. Wilson never had any illusions about Stalin, and he understood—as most of his literary contemporaries did not—that Marxism was sterile as an interpretative tool. This was certainly one of the principal reasons for the greatness during the nineteenth century of the Russian theater and novel. Long before his death in , much of his life had turned into farce. By that point, however, the ground was shifting under his feet—or, rather, what had looked to the young critic in the s as a vast plain of American letters was narrowing to a small ledge, and even someone as surefooted as Edmund Wilson was having trouble keeping his balance.
What role was there, once we reached the s, for a master reader of American literature? Lionel Trilling, Leslie Fiedler, Dwight Macdonald—all the great American literary critics of the time found their options and their importance dwindling. Others settled back into curmudgeonly grumpiness. Others simply became irrelevant. However well he wrote, however well he performed the cultural hygiene of criticism, he seems astoundingly irrelevant now.
Who reads him these days? Friends and family shun loved ones who refuse to toe the party line. Later, the official story is revealed as false, or the forbidden facts are revealed to be true. This is quietly dismissed or ignored. Our government is undertaking massive restructuring of our country and our economy, including catastrophic levels of debt and unconstitutional deprivation of our rights and civil liberties.
They are doing this over the objection of a majority of citizens, aided by the ignorance of millions of others. They are using propaganda, deflection and outright lies to turn us against one another and distract us from their machinations. You probably tell yourself you wouldn't have helped the Nazis, the Bolsheviks or the Khmer Rouge. You like to think you're wise to those who would manipulate you. If you're asked to exclude your fellow citizens from your place of business unless they're vaccinated, will you do it? If you are asked to fire employees who have had COVID or who have concerns about the vaccines, will you do it? If you are told that you'll lose your medical license unless you perform abortions, will you do it? If you are asked by the FBI to turn in names of people you think disagree with you politically, will you do it?
You've been told that millions of your countrymen -- your friends, neighbors and co-workers -- are "white supremacists" and "domestic terrorists. Because if you do believe that, what won't you do if asked? You have a choice to make. Are you going to be a willing pawn in propaganda campaigns conducted by powermongers, who will come for you, too, eventually, as they always do? Or will you think for yourself, defend free inquiry, demand the truth and help keep this country free? To find out more about Laura Hollis and read features by other Creators Syndicate writers and cartoonists, visit the Creators Syndicate website at www.
The citizens of any free country have the right to a government that works for them. For Americans, it is our birthright. Our founding documents say so explicitly. The Declaration of Independence sets forth the principles Read More. The book is apparently the latest effort to smear former President Donald Trump as a deranged lunatic. Alas, for the authors,Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda among CIA friends were the Alsop brothers. But it was her An Analysis Of G-Eazys Opportunity Cost experience of the rise Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda Nazism in Germany combined Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda her years of statelessness, which turned her away from philosophy to politics. After Graham committed suicide, and his Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda Katherine Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda the role of publisher, she continued Persuasive Speech On Depression husband's policies of supporting the efforts of the intelligence community in advancing the foreign policy and Beowulf Summer Reading Questions agenda of the Why Did Mary Mccarthy Use Of Propaganda ruling elites.