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24 LIFE HACKS WITH COCA COLA
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Lifestyle drugs, which garner attention in the media, aren't that big a business. But Valium, from the Latin for "to be strong and well," is different. The first billion-dollar medicine and one of the first brand-name drugs, Valium launches the era of blockbuster medicines. More prescriptions are written for it than for any other drug between and But while the Swiss may have pioneered the blockbuster, the Americans later master it. Valium's descendants range from. In the late 19th century, the French try to build a canal across the Panama isthmus connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. They fail. Early in the 20th century, the U. No dice. So the U.
The U. Now ships traveling from New York to San Francisco can save a modest 7, miles by not detouring around South America. The law breaks up the powerful trusts that had dominated the nation's electricity and gas utilities. Power companies are rendered a political afterthought throughout the century, unlike, say, oil companies, which continue to wield influence. Sixty years later there would be talk of repealing or reforming PUHCA, which some see as an antiquated impediment to competition among utilities. The "Thrilla in Manila" marks the first time satellites are used to deliver regularly scheduled programming and link together previously isolated cable systems.
HBO's bold move helps create the modern cable business, now the largest single segment of the entertainment industry. Twenty-four years later, U. Live satellite feeds also make it possible to offer national and worldwide broadcasts of everyday sporting events, turning collegiate and pro athletics into an figure annual business. Unfortunately, the massive expansion does little to improve the quality of our entertainment. Surgeon General Luther Terry, who picked tobacco in Alabama as a boy, startles Americans with the news that deliberately inhaling smoke deep into your lungs dozens of times every day might be bad for you.
Still, coffin nails would remain a very profitable business. In , industry leader. Michael Milken, a young punk out of Wharton, convinces his firm that there's gold in junk. After making a killing in "fallen angels" -- once-investment-grade bonds that have fallen in price because of investor worries that their issuers will default -- Milken and the firm then known as. Milken's clients include. Would-be corporate raiders soon turn to junk as a source of financing. A little insider trading later, the s are in full swing.
The first commercial communications satellite, nicknamed Early Bird, introduces live commercial television across oceans. Years later this wonderful technology would mean we could share the O. Building on the work of a bunch of other guys, Theodore Maiman's creation paves the way for multiple innovations, including high-quality printing, new forms of surgery, fiber-optic communications, bar-code scanners, CDs and laser tag. But the. Little over a decade later, the slide would be remembered as not much more than a chance for investors to buy on one of history's biggest dips.
But the upstart scores its big breakthrough in , when MCI today subsumed into. Bernays with a problem: Public smoking by women is taboo, and the untapped market potential is maddening. Bernays, a nephew of Sigmund Freud, consults a psychoanalyst to divine what might lead ladies to light up outdoors. The answer, in these just-past-suffrage days: Appeal to their desire for freedom and equality.
Bernays has his secretary quietly orchestrate a debutante demonstration at New York's Easter Parade: Young women of good breeding boldly fire up cancer sticks and puff away as they stroll Fifth Avenue. Years later Bernays would put his PR skills to work. But the damage was done: Flackery and cigarettes were big business and would stay that way. The Internet stock party of recent months wouldn't be the first time that stocks in a promising new technology have acted maniacally. Early in ,. But over the next year and a half, it begins a dizzying climb. It hits in May; in November; the following summer. It is probably the most pronounced symbol of excess of the bull market of the '20s. And guess what: It wouldn't be in business 70 years later.
When RCA and other stocks plunge below pre levels, it puts the fear of stocks in Americans. Investors turn to safer investments like bonds and, eventually, federally insured bank accounts and certificates of deposit. It would take a younger generation who knew not Joseph, unscarred by the crash and egged on by the great bull market of the s and s, to erase the troubling memory of the s bubble. That younger generation would learn that everything's different now, because there's a new economy and all.
With innovations like the year self-amortizing mortgage, the Federal Housing Administration puts the power of the federal government behind home financing, helping to make home ownership a reality for tens of millions of Americans and powering the residential real estate industry. World War II puts a quick end to the high unemployment levels of the Depression, as most non-flat-footed young men abandon their plowshares for guns. Women take factory jobs previously reserved for men, making Rosie the Riveter into a feminist and patriotic icon.
And under pressure from civil rights leader and union president A. Philip Randolph, President Franklin Roosevelt in issues an executive order banning race discrimination by the feds and government contractees and creates the Fair Employment Practices Committee to enforce the rule, helping blacks to get previously unavailable jobs. But civil rights progress would stall after the war as men returned from the front: Women would be laid off from their jobs and urged to return to the kitchen and play their part in the baby boom, while Congress would refuse to renew the FEPC. Fischer Black and Myron Scholes of the University of Chicago devise a pricing model that establishes a standard by which options can be priced.
Until Black-Scholes, traders and investors have been pretty much guessing. The model figures out a way to measure the volatility of the underlying instrument and its erosion of value over time. Black-Scholes adds enough credibility to pricing to make options -- and later more complex derivatives -- legitimate, liquid instruments for all sorts of institutional investors, ranging from. Options for overnight, cross-country delivery range from telexing to getting on a plane documents in hand. FedEx and other overnight delivery companies revolutionize business in the U.
One of the few useful pieces of corporate welfare ever enacted, the guarantees helped pull. The company would pay back the loans in , seven years ahead of schedule. But the bailout wouldn't create the great moral hazard critics feared, since most big companies would either straighten up and fly right or, like Pan Am, be allowed to go bankrupt. Hell, I'll take both! Lyndon Johnson's effort to conduct a war in Vietnam and a War on Poverty at the same time causes inflation to triple from 1. The price hikes give Americans their first taste of the double-digit inflation that would follow a decade later.
The transplanted gene starts producing protein inside the bacterium, proving that simple organisms could be called upon to become protein "factories. The biotech industry is born. Stanford and UCSF see the discovery as a money-making opportunity. In the years to come, the universities would license the process to dozens of companies, reaping millions of dollars. Science, the academy, medicine and the corporation would be inexorably entwined from then on. Boyer, stricken with the Silicon Valley bug, would go on to help found the first biotech company, South San Francisco's. Genentech in would win the first approval for a genetically engineered protein, human growth hormone, giving hope to short kids everywhere that their hoop dreams might be realized. But then Alfred P.
Sloan comes along. He brings discipline to the far-flung company, actually doing some planning, strategizing and organizing. And he would manage, over his decades at the helm, to master market segmentation, selling Chevrolets to Joe Sixpacks and Caddys to the upper crust and, later, pimps. By targeting sales, the company avoids internal competition, a strategy that enables GM to bypass Ford as the No. Sloan's revitalized GM establishes decentralized management, with division heads given the freedom to come up with their own ideas. Almost 80 years later, no large company would go untouched by Sloan's decentralization concept. The fax alone doesn't speed up the pace of American business -- after all, the first facsimile was patented in the midth century.
What changes things is the fax. Finally, offices know that if they buy a Brand X fax machine, they can send documents in a matter of minutes to a Brand Y machine across the country. Once hooked on speed -- we're talking about the pace of business here, not the drug -- companies can't give it up. And so, getting the job done fast, faster and fastest would become an unshakeable part of American business. With the innovation of email, faxing would seem to take forever. And a T1 line becomes a must. Business and the markets would speed up to match communication technology. Stock-market corrections would begin in the morning and be over by noon. Jay Goulds and Gatsbys would mint money instantly. On Internet time, companies would not only achieve stellar success but also flame out in a fraction of the time it took previous generations to build empires.
Nasdaq wants to play on the same lucrative and prestigious field as the. One key to level competition for Nasdaq is gaining exemptions from the so-called blue-sky laws, state-by-state regulations governing what securities can be sold to state residents. While NYSE and. That starts to change in December , when Georgia becomes the first state to grant Nasdaq stocks the same treatment granted to the older exchanges' issues. Many states would follow suit. By the mids, giant companies such as.
The Amex would become such a shell of its former self that the NASD would effortlessly swallow it in But the ascendancy of the Nasdaq would prove to be more than just a story of competition between stock markets. In giving a legitimate trading forum to entrepreneurial start-ups with little operating history and continuing losses, the Nasdaq would contribute to the "venture capitalization" of the country. These companies would be volatile and orders-of-magnitude riskier than many NYSE listings.
But many individual investors would seize the chance to live entrepreneurial lives vicariously, seeking to discover -- and strike it rich on -- companies that go from the garage to the. Worried about its potential for side effects, Food and Drug Administration medical officer Dr. Frances Kelsey delays the application for approval of thalidomide, a sleeping pill that later turns out to cause serious birth defects. Her action leads to the overhaul of the FDA and a tightening -- a creation, really -- of drug approval standards that live today.
Not only would the overhaul bring regulation to the enormous and powerful pharmaceutical industry, it would haul the drugmakers into the modern era, forcing them to conduct scientifically rigorous clinical trials. Now apply them to your stock portfolio. Benjamin Graham would have wanted it that way. By , he's teaching evening classes to Depression-wearied business students at New York's Columbia University and joins fellow prof David L.
Dodd in writing the seminal guide to value investing,. Graham's bracingly simple philosophy hinges on those three little words, margin of safety. That means you buy stocks trading at a significant discount to their intrinsic value. You skip the high price-to-earnings ratios, the swollen price-to-book ratios. Graham popularizes the concept of valuation, and. The much-married, womanizing Graham's prudence at least in finance would inspire many to follow his teachings, perhaps most famously Warren Buffett, the billionaire Nebraskan more closely associated with the word oracle than Larry Ellison.
Value investing would remain in sharp conflict with the headlong, and lately vastly profitable, chase after growth at all costs, but millions of investors would be more than content with the minimized risks and steady rewards of the Graham way. The greatest American engineering feat of the century, Hoover Dam harnesses the power of the Colorado River and opens up the Southwest for major settlement and development.
The largest asbestos manufacturer, onetime Dow component. By , despite thousands of settlements, the total number of suits would be about half a million, and claims wouldn't be over. But most of the money would go to the lawyers, not the victims. Soon, class actions would become a staple of American law, giving victims of dangerous products legal recourse or giving greedy trial lawyers a way to get rich at the expense of blameless companies, depending on which side you're on.
And it briefly seems like they might be right. By the end of , 35 brokerage firms disappear, though most of them are pretty dinky. But guess what: Volume soars. Price down equals demand up. Economics is funny that way. In , in the middle of a sucking bear market, average daily volume on the. And don't forget the online brokers, which will make everyone who touches a computer rich beyond his or her wildest dreams. Steel today known as USX-U. The California Public Employees Retirement System, the nation's largest public pension system, in officially turns its sights on the boardroom.
It fights back against cushy poison pill antitakeover plans and directors' willingness to dole out greenmail -- buying corporate raiders out at a premium to the market price. In the early s, it begins publishing an annual list of "focus companies," the biggest losers in its portfolio, pushing board members to produce better results or risk a "no" vote at re-election time.
In doing so, Calpers becomes a symbol of shareholder activism: If you're mad as hell and own enough stock , you don't have to take it anymore. Those dang Russkies put that gosh-darn Sputnik into orbit and we have to do something. Over the next 40 years the U. The same year,. Cargill would become one of the largest private companies in the U. The rise of Cargill and ADM mirrors the fall of the family farm and the long, slow death of rural America. There are 5. In , only 2. There are only 2. Touched off by a DWI traffic stop, race riots erupt in Los Angeles' Watts neighborhood as African-Americans vent long-simmering anger about dire conditions in the inner city.
Thirty-four people are killed and more than 1, injured. Scores of businesses and jobs destroyed in the violence would never return, while white support for civil rights would drop off sharply, exacerbating the decline of Watts and other inner-city neighborhoods, which even today remain isolated from the economic and business success going on around them. Ralph Nader's. A decade of consumer protection and federal regulation would follow, including the creation of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in In , Merrill merges.
He then adopts a focus on the customer that builds the new Merrill into the largest U. The boomers would impose their questionable taste upon all walks of life, from Schwinn bikes in the '50s, to love beads in the '60s, all the way to Internet stocks and SUVs today. President Franklin Roosevelt signs the Agricultural Adjustment Act in an effort to end the terrible poverty that has visited farms in the wake of the Great Depression. The act, which creates price supports and controls on crop production, succeeds, at the cost of turning those hardy Jeffersonian farmers into dependents of the federal government long after the Depression has passed.
William Levitt builds suburbia, and they come. The houses are small and uniform, but for GIs just back from the war and families used to grimy tenements, they're heaven. Levitt sells homes in his Long Island, N. Sadly, Levitt doesn't let equal rights get in the way of his quest to build the perfect tract house. His early contracts explicitly bar homeowners from allowing their properties "to be used or occupied by any person other than members of the Caucasian race. Eventually HCA, the first investor-owned hospital chain, would merge with.
It would become the largest operator of hospital chains in the country, until it is brought low in a major Medicare bilking scandal. The door to for-profit health care businesses is opened, not to close again. The health maintenance organization comes a few years later, when President Richard Nixon, worried about health-care inflation, persuades Congress to provide grants encouraging the establishment of HMOs.
The law also opens the corporate door for HMOs by requiring any company offering health-care insurance to its workers to offer an HMO option. Using short-term liabilities depositors' savings accounts to finance long-term assets mortgages is a roadmap for disaster, and the inflation of the s provides the necessary gas for the ride to receivership. Unfortunately, rather than dealing with the crunch, your friendly representatives in Washington choose to look the other way and loosen regulations.
A Texas office park here and a Florida hotel there, and we're suddenly talking real money. Still, things could have been worse. While the crisis would be expensive, it would be largely resolved by the early '90s, and the U. The Japanese can only look on enviously. The move opens up competition in the long-distance market, thereby introducing the term "slamming" into the English lexicon and giving new endorsement opportunities to washed-up celebrities everywhere. President Ronald Reagan fires 11, members of the air traffic controllers' union, demonstrating that the power once wielded by labor unions in America has waned.
Of course, years of deindustrialization and repeated scandals involving organized crime had already greatly weakened the nation's once-mighty union movement. For most of the next two decades, unions would remain on the defensive. But by the late s, a new wave of union leaders would step up spending on recruitment in an effort to avoid marginalization. In , union membership would grow by , workers, the largest increase in five years. Call 'em strivers searching for a better life. Or, if you prefer, just call 'em cheap labor. Either way, immigrants have provided a vital spark to the U.
Their influence peaks before World War I, when a flood of immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe powers the growth of New York and the other new metropolises of the Northeast and Midwest, helping turn the U. Immigration tops out in , when more than 1 million European immigrants pass through New York's Ellis Island. The GI Bill makes college and advanced training possible for millions of vets, dramatically increasing the education level and skills of the U. Though it's a maudlin novel and a Zola rip-off, Upton Sinclair's muckraking contribution has an almost immediate impact. The government would pass that year the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act, which would pave the way for the Food and Drug Administration but strangely have no effect on the advent of Velveeta.
By World War I, pressure from the muckrakers, and their political counterparts, the Progressives, would have led to government protection of natural resources, the creation of public utility commissions and the enactment of labor laws. World conquest and a succession of schmaltzy commercial jingles swiftly follow. The countries, including pals like Iran, Iraq, Kuwait and Nigeria, keep much of the world at their mercy for five months, with effects stretching well beyond. Among the most significant: Sammy Hagar's.
The quadrupling of oil prices that would result from the embargo sends inflation soaring, throwing the U. Vast Detroit land boats are relegated to history's scrapheap and the extremely useful Department of Energy is created a few years later. While the U. In Britain, fishing fleets are kept in port for lack of fuel. In Germany, the economy seems to slide toward subsistence farming and the Middle Ages. Threats of starvation and Communism loom over Western Europe.
So Secretary of State George C. Marshall gives a speech. But not just any speech. Marshall offers "substantial" U. With more than its usual foresight, Congress rapidly agrees, and from mid to , the U. The aid gives Europe an immediate boost, spurring new investment and pulling the Continent out of its slump. Just as the "shot heard round the world" initiated the Revolutionary War that eventually freed America from British control and taxes , the fall of the Berlin Wall in ignites a revolution for American business. With the end of the Cold War, huge potential markets emerge from the yoke of Soviet domination, eager to embrace Western-style capitalism, even including Taco Bells.
In other words, the Rapture comes 11 years earlier than expected. For better and worse, American and capitalistic values would follow. The statistics are unequivocal: While the income of the richest Americans would soar beginning in , the poor would actually see their earnings decline. Wage stagnation is more an effect than a cause of broader trends in the economy, from the decline of unions to increased immigration of unskilled workers to technological advances that have eliminated low-skill but decent-paying jobs.
Still, attention must be paid; overwhelming economic gaps tend to cause widespread social unrest. See Russia, circa , or Indonesia, circa Fortunately, in the late s, this trend would begin to turn, as an ultratight job market finally would lift wages at the bottom of the ladder. In an ruling, the Supreme Court affirms the government's right to limit corporate power, ordering everyone's favorite monopoly split into 34 different companies. But shed no tears for Roc-a-fella, who would grow even richer after the breakup when shares in. Though there's vague evidence of some program sponsorship before this, the first ad on a commercial radio station then called toll broadcasting is on WEAF in New York -- a minute spot for a Queens real estate development.
In the years to come, broadcast ads would evolve in sophistication and cleverness, culminating in the groundbreaking "Swedish Bikini Team" TV commercials for Old Milwaukee in The bill introduces the trippingly memorable phrase " k " to the lexicon. Before President Gerald Ford signs the Employee Retirement Income Security Act into law, most workers have their money in company-managed pension plans that focus on stable, conservative investments.
The plans offer predefined benefits, but many workers who leave companies before age 65 -- regardless of their years of toil -- forfeit their pensions entirely. ERISA creates safeguards to retirement plans and opens the door to the k plan, created in by R. Central Garage, Inc. Top Trending Essays. Popular Topics. Book Report. Literacy Narrative Essays. Criminal Justice. Free Personal Narrative Essays. Global Issue. Browse More Essay Topics.With these visits so Alienation In Coca Cola, Deng Alienation In Coca Cola it clear that the new Chinese regime's priorities were Alienation In Coca Cola and technological development. Press coverage in the media reinforces stereotypes little red riding hood character description subordinate women; it gives airtime to looks over skills, and coverage Alienation In Coca Cola women who defy accepted norms. As Alienation In Coca Cola asMs. Hospital Corp. Bloomsbury Publishing.