⒈ Acupressure Research Paper

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Acupressure Research Paper



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Acupressure for Family and Friends

It is suggested that both infants and adults with greater relative right frontal EEG activation at baseline may be more affected by lavender application [ 73 ]. Lavender has been suggested as an excellent natural remedy to treat insomnia and improve the sleep quality. Single-blind randomized studies investigated the effectiveness of lavender odor on quality of sleep showed that lavender improved the mean scores of sleep quality in fifteen healthy students [ 74 ], in sixty-four ischemic heart disease patients [ 75 ], and in thirty-four midlife women with insomnia [ 76 ]. More notable improvements were seen in females and younger participants.

Milder insomnia also improved more than severe ones [ 77 ]. A mixture of essential oils including lavender, basil, juniper, and sweet marjoram is shown to reduce sleep disturbance and improve overall well-being in older patients [ 78 ]. In a clinical study on four benzodiazepine dependent geriatric patients, there was a significant decrease in sleep duration by stopping benzodiazepine treatment, which was restored to previous levels by substitution of aromatherapy with lavender oil. This study suggested that ambient lavender oil might be used as a temporary relief from continued medication for insomnia and reduces the side-effects of these drugs [ 79 ].

In a study on thirty-one hospitalized patients, administration of lavender odor showed a trend towards an improved quality of daytime wakefulness and more sustained sleep at night [ 80 ]. In contrary to these data, it should be noted that the use of aromatherapy massage with lavender oil has no beneficial effect on the sleep patterns of children with autism attending a residential school. It was suggested that this therapy may show greater effects in the home environment or with longer-term interventions [ 81 ]. Lavender reported to be useful in the treatment of acute as well as chronic or intractable pain [ 82 ]. Treatment of recurrent aphthous ulceration with lavender oil in patients revealed a significant pain relief mostly from the first dose, ulcer size reduction, increased rate of mucosal repair, and healing within three days of treatment compared to baseline and placebo groups [ 84 ].

Stress level, the bispectral index a promising parameter for monitoring sedation , and pain intensity of needle insertion were significantly reduced after receiving oxygen with a face mask coated with lavender oil for five minutes compared with the control in thirty volunteers [ 85 ]. Aromatherapy by using lavender essence was also reported as a successful and safe complementary therapy in reduction of pain after the cesarean section in term pregnant women [ 87 ] and after episiotomy in 60 primiparous women [ 88 ] as well as in perineal discomfort following normal childbirth in women [ 89 , 90 ].

In contrast to these observations, the aroma of essential oil of lavender ease anxiety but not perception of pain during elective cosmetic facial injections of botulinum toxin for the correction of glabellar wrinkle [ 93 ]. Inhalation of lavender essential oil is suggested to be an effective and safe treatment modality in acute management of migraine headaches. Forty-seven patients suffering from migraine attacks reported significant reduction of pain severity and associated symptoms after fifteen minutes inhalation of lavender oil drops of the lavender essential oil rubbed onto their upper lip in the early stages of the attacks [ 5 ].

Aromatherapy massage with lavender accompanied with rose geranium, rose, and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks is reported as an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression, and pain in climacteric women [ 96 ]. The use of aromas to modulate affect and mood has been reported by several ancient and medieval physicians [ 9 — 12 ]. The positive effects of different medicinal plants as cognition enhancers have been reported [ 97 ]. To assess the olfactory impact of the essential oils of lavender on cognitive performance and mood in healthy volunteers, the Cognitive Drug Research computerized cognitive assessment battery was performed in participants. Analysis of performance revealed that lavender odor four drops of oil were applied to a diffuser pad produced a significant decrement in performance of working memory as well as impaired reaction times for both memory and attention.

In addition, a significant effect was found for lavender compared to controls for degree of contentedness, indicating that lavender is capable of elevating mood, or at least maintaining good mood during the completion of a challenging test battery under laboratory conditions [ 98 ]. There is an improvement of emotional state in the work environment following the use of the lavender oil burners.

Aromatherapy consisted of the use of rosemary and lemon essential oils in the morning, and lavender and orange in the evening showed significant improvement in personal orientation related to cognitive function in 28 elderly patients suffering from different forms of dementia [ ]. It has been shown that unconscious perception of lavender odor can significantly affect the rate of errors made in the mathematical and letter counting tests. In the presence of the odor of lavender, subjects made fewer errors than in the presence of no odor or the odor of jasmine [ ]. By comparison, it has been reported lavender to impair arithmetic reasoning, but not memory, when compared to cloves, with no concomitant effect on mood for either odor [ ].

Although sufficient evidence exists to recommend lavender for short-term treatment of some neurological disorders, long-term trials and observational studies are needed to establish the safety of long-term use as well as overall efficacy in the context of treatment and management of these diseases. The available data suggests that short-term therapy with lavender is relatively safe. However, there are some reports of adverse effects after application of lavender. Gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products, which contained lavender and tea tree oils was reported in three boys aged between 7 to 10 years.

Gynecomastia resolved in all patients shortly after discontinuation of products containing these oils. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the lavender oil had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities [ ]. Lavender should be also used cautiously or avoided in patients with known allergy to lavender [ , ]. In the oral lavender trials, Kasper et al. Gastrointestinal adverse events, such as nausea and dyspepsia, after receiving silexan were reported [ ]. Ingestion should be avoided during pregnancy due to emmenagogue effects [ ] and breastfeeding. Lavender oil has no potential for drug abuse [ ]. A recent increase in the popularity of alternative medicine and natural products has renewed interest in lavender and their essential oils as potential natural remedies [ 2 ].

This review may be useful to increase our knowledge of lavender pharmacological effects and improve our future experimental and clinical research plans. Although it is shown that lavender may have a significant clinical potential either in their own right or as adjuvant therapy in different disorders, however, due to some issues, such as methodological inadequacies, small sample sizes, short duration of lavender application, lack of information regarding dose rationale, variation between efficacy and effectiveness trials, variability of administration methods, the absence of a placebo comparator, or lack of control groups more standard experiments and researches are needed to confirm the beneficial effect of lavender in the neurological disorders [ ].

Methodological and oil identification problems have also hampered the evaluation of the therapeutic significance of some of the research on lavender. The dried lavender flowers used in some trials were sourced from a local herb store i. Although taxonomic identification was confirmed in these studies, without quantification of key constituents the quality of the herbal product may be questionable [ ]. Although some studies defined the contents of lavender, it is essential that all future clinical studies specify the exact derivation of the oils used in the study and, preferably, include a profile of the liquid or the percentage composition of the major constituents.

In addition, several factors, such as temperature, skin type and quality, and the size of area being treated, which may affect the level and rate of lavender absorption after massage or aromatherapy, were not considered in several investigations. Many discreet compounds in lavender oil have shown a myriad of potential therapeutic effects, and researchers continue to seek novel treatments to different ailments [ 2 ]. Only few clinical investigations on lavender are available using diverse administration methods i. The evidence for oral lavender is promising; however, until independent studies emerge with long-term follow-up data, it remains inconclusive [ ]. The use of more widely used forms of lavender administrations aromatherapy, inhalation, massage, etc.

Future clinical trials, well-reported and adopting rigorous standard methodology, in combination with experimental pharmacological research, would help to clarify the therapeutic value of lavender for neurological and psychological disorders [ , ]. The apparently low reporting of adverse reactions could imply tolerability and safety [ ]. However, most studies failed to provide details which may have masked these and the studies only involved small numbers of participants. It is crucial to get good tolerability and safety data for all modes of lavender application. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. Published online Mar Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Lavender is traditionally alleged to have a variety of therapeutic and curative properties, ranging from inducing relaxation to treating parasitic infections, burns, insect bites, and spasm.

Introduction The genus Lavandula is native to the lands surrounding the Mediterranean Sea and southern Europe through northern and eastern Africa and Middle Eastern countries to southwest Asia and southeast India. Animal Studies Several animal experiments suggest anxiolytic, sedative, analgesic, and anticonvulsive and neuroprotective properties for lavender [ 14 ]. Mechanisms of Action of Lavender in the Nervous System Several investigations were performed to clarify the mechanism of action of lavender in neuronal tissues. Human Studies Although there is considerable debate about whether lavender species have a significant clinical potential either alone or as additives to other substances, many human studies support its effectiveness in different neurological and psychological disorders.

Anxiety, Depression, and Lavender Lavender was used in the treatment of anxiety disorders and related conditions. Electroencephalography EEG and Lavender It has been suggested that some neurological disorders with significant EEG changes, such as epilepsy, may be benefited by aromatherapy [ 10 , 11 ]. Sleep and Lavender Lavender has been suggested as an excellent natural remedy to treat insomnia and improve the sleep quality.

Pain and Lavender Lavender reported to be useful in the treatment of acute as well as chronic or intractable pain [ 82 ]. Cognition and Lavender The use of aromas to modulate affect and mood has been reported by several ancient and medieval physicians [ 9 — 12 ]. Safety Although sufficient evidence exists to recommend lavender for short-term treatment of some neurological disorders, long-term trials and observational studies are needed to establish the safety of long-term use as well as overall efficacy in the context of treatment and management of these diseases.

Critical Overview and Conclusion A recent increase in the popularity of alternative medicine and natural products has renewed interest in lavender and their essential oils as potential natural remedies [ 2 ]. Authors' Contribution P. Koulivand and M. Ghadiri contributed equally to this paper. References 1. Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytotherapy Research. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of lavandula essential oil constituents. Planta Medica. Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells. Cell Proliferation.

Setzer WN. Essential oils and anxiolytic aromatherapy. Natural Product Communications. Lavender essential oil in the treatment of migraine headache: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. European Journal of Neurology. Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine.

Morris N. The effects of lavender Lavendula angustifolium baths on psychological well-being: two exploratory randomized controls trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. Percutaneous absorbtion of lavender oil from a massage oil. Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Chemists. Vakili N, Gorji A. Psychiatry and psychology in medieval Persia. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. Gorji A, Khaleghi Ghadiri M. History of epilepsy in Medieval Iranian medicine.

Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Gorji A, Ghadiri MK. History of headache in medieval Persian medicine. Lancet Neurology. Gorji A. Pharmacological treatment of headache using traditional persian medicine. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Denner SS. Lavandula angustifolia miller: english lavender. Holistic Nursing Practice. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of the anticonvulsant, sedative and antispasmodic activities of Lavandula stoechas L.

Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Umezu T. Behavioral effects of plant-derived essential oils in the Geller type conflict test in mice. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. Effects of lavender oil inhalation on improving scopolamine-induced spatial memory impairment in laboratory rats. Anticonflict effects of lavender oil and identification of its active constituents. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. Anxiolytic effects of lavender oil inhalation on open-field behaviour in rats.

Anxiolytic effects of Lavandula angustifolia odour on the Mongolian gerbil elevated plus maze. Effects of inhaled Linalool in anxiety, social interaction and aggressive behavior in mice. Local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia. Sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. Stimulative and sedative effects of essential oils upon inhalation in mice. They identified a general theme, that of the "self-improving woman", which they argue fits in perfectly with modern constructions of what scholarship has called the "neoliberal" woman, a woman who, free of outside influences, seeks to optimize herself and her health see Healthism.

Within that theme, they found four attitudes that promote healthist practices such as vaginal steaming:. The authors conclude that vaginal steaming is one of many practices that fit "neoliberal, postfeminist and healthist ideologies, colliding with pervasive sociocultural understandings of the female reproductive body both as core of womanhood and as 'embodied pathology ' ". From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Pseudoscientific form of alternative medicine. General information. Alternative medicine History Terminology Alternative veterinary medicine Quackery health fraud Rise of modern medicine Pseudoscience Antiscience Skepticism Skeptical movement Therapeutic nihilism.

Fringe medicine and science. Conspiracy theories list. Alternative medical systems Mind—body intervention Biologically-based therapy Manipulative methods Energy therapy. Traditional medicine. Adrenal fatigue Aerotoxic syndrome Candida hypersensitivity Chronic Lyme disease Electromagnetic hypersensitivity Heavy legs Leaky gut syndrome Multiple chemical sensitivity Wilson's temperature syndrome. Retrieved 9 March July While gentle movement can help your nausea, odds are, most physical activity will cause undue stress to your stomach, which can worsen your nausea.

Avoid strong odors. Your sense of smell is connected to your digestive system, so a strong scent can send your stomach reeling and worsen your nausea avoid paint at all costs. In fact, if at all possible, you should remove yourself from an area in which anyone is cooking, smoking, or wearing strong perfume. Part 2. Apply acupressure with your fingers. Acupressure is an ancient Chinese method that involves placing pressure on an area of your body, using your fingers. Acupressure, like acupuncture, works by changing the pain messages that nerves send to your brain. Use this shape to press firmly down on the groove between the two large tendons on the inside of your wrist that start at the base of your palm. Hold them there for 30 seconds to a minute.

Then, release your fingers from your wrist. You should feel your nausea lift or subside. Use an acupressure band. If you need to have your hands free, you can still try acupressure by purchasing an acupressure or motion sickness bracelet. These bands have a button that applies pressure to points on your wrist continually, providing you with relief throughout the day. Do yoga to stretch your back and neck. Sometimes, nausea is caused by discomfort in your back and neck. Gentle stretches can relieve your back and neck pain and help to relieve your nausea. To stretch your upper back, do a downward facing cross legged pose.

Sit cross-legged on the floor and bend your body forward. Stop bending forward when your body is at a 45 degree angle with your legs. Rest your arms on a chair in front of you. If you are more flexible, you can also bend your body until your forehead touches the ground in front of you and your hands are stretched outward. To stretch your neck, sit down in a chair.

Relax your shoulders and place your hands on your thighs. Tilt your head toward your shoulder and hold for 15 to 30 seconds. Keep your opposite shoulder down. Take a deep breath and bring your head back to the center. Repeat this 2 to 4 times for each side. Lie on a yoga mat or carpet against a wall. Place your tailbone and buttocks against the wall and swing your legs up the wall. Remain in this position for at least 5 minutes, or breaths. This pose should help to calm your nausea and reduce any stress or tension in your body. Part 3. Eat food in small amounts, throughout the day. Hunger and dehydration can actually cause nausea or make your nausea worse.

Consume bland and hydrating foods. While eating might be the last thing you want to do, an empty stomach will only make your nausea worse. To avoid upsetting your stomach further, try eating easy-to-digest foods. If your nausea is only mild, you could also try baked or boiled chicken or fish. Good examples of hydrating foods include popsicles, clear broth-based soups, and Jello. Avoid foods that are greasy, salty, or spicy. These foods are all too heavy for your stomach to handle when it is feeling sensitive. Try not to mix hot and cold foods. The difference in temperature can send your stomach for a whirl, which is the last thing you want while fighting off nausea. As a general guideline, cold food is usually gentler on the stomach and proves more effective at calming nausea than hot food does.

Hot food can have strong smells, which can make your nausea worse. Sip clear, cold fluids throughout the day. Hydration is vital during fits of nausea. Use a straw to help you sip, rather than gulp, fluids. Flat soda, especially flat ginger ale, can help settle a nauseous stomach. If you have vomited, drink a sports drink that contains glucose, salt, and potassium to replace any of the minerals you could have lost.

Avoid beverages that contain caffeine and alcohol. This can slow down your digestion and lead to a stomachache, on top of your nausea. Part 4. Eat ginger. Ginger tea, raw ginger, and candied ginger can all be used to help reduce a bout of nausea. Ginger root promotes the secretion of various digestive juices and enzymes that help neutralize stomach acid. The phenols in ginger also relax the muscles in your stomach, thereby reducing the amount of activity in your stomach while helping your intestines push toxins through your system faster. Wash the ginger root and peel it. Slice it into small pieces, or crush it by covering it with wax paper and using a spoon to smash it.

Boil cups of water over medium high heat. Then, add the ginger and let it boil for minutes. Sip it slowly. Use peppermint. Peppermint tea and hard peppermint candy have nausea-relieving properties similar to those of ginger. The scent of peppermint is also very effective at reducing nausea. Place a few drops of food-safe peppermint oil directly on the insides of your wrists or your gums. Make milk toast. Bland food can help to tame your tummy, including milk and bread. Bread absorbs excess acid, while milk coats your stomach and helps to settle it. You do not want to drink milk straight though, as dairy alone can upset your stomach, so make milk toast for a happy medium.

Pour the milk into a bowl. Toast a piece of bread and spread a small amount of unsalted butter on it. Crumble the toast into the milk and stir it. Eat it slowly. Suck on a lemon. A cold or frozen lemon works best. The sharp smell and taste of citrus can help reduce your nausea. If smelling the lemon does not work, cut it into wedges and place them in the freezer for 30 minutes or so. Once they are chilled or frozen, suck on the slice of lemon to relieve your nausea quickly.

Part 5. Use an over-the-counter medicine. If you can make a quick trip to your local convenience store or supermarket, pick up a non-prescription treatment labeled for use against nausea.

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