✍️✍️✍️ Of Mice And Men Comparative Analysis
For instance, many cell division genes that are critical for Of Mice And Men Comparative Analysis development of cancer have Of Mice And Men Comparative Analysis discovered in yeast. In addition to the Of Mice And Men Comparative Analysis communication channel, the visual modality is also significant. Of Mice And Men Comparative Analysis animals share the same symptoms and treatments. Ogden Many The Narrator In Rita Doves The Darker Face Of Earth researchers Of Mice And Men Comparative Analysis that there is no substitute for a living organism when studying complex interactions in disease pathology or treatments. Nature Medicine.
'Of Mice and Men' by John Steinbeck GCSE Revision - Plot, Context, Characters \u0026 Themes Explained!
When skin is treated with terpenes, the existing network of hydrogen bonds between ceramides may loosen because of competitive hydrogen bonding The high accumulation of most of the terpenes in the skin layers proves that these compounds easily permeate the stratum corneum and that they may easily penetrate into blood circulation in vivo In our study, we found that PEO induced very thick and long hair after 4-week topical application and promoted the elongation of hair follicles from the epidermis down to the subcutis in a vertical section Fig. Application of MXD caused similar results.
We observed that this increase in hair follicle length was not associated with any loss of hair follicle architecture and that the increase in hair follicle length was associated with an increase in the length of the keratinized hair shaft. The drugs for alopecia treatment have been developed to maintain or induce the anagen stage of hair cycle. ALP activity was particularly detected in the dermal papilla. ALP activity in the dermal papilla was moderate in very early anagen, reached a maximal level in early anagen, and was kept at a low level during catagen The bulbar dermal sheath showed intense ALP activity only in early anagen Although results from clinical trials vary, the majority of the evidence indicates that there is a direct correlation between the hair follicle depth and the level of ALP activity.
This study demonstrates that PEO stimulates both dermal papilla and ALP activity, which promotes blood circulation by relaxing vascular smooth muscle 8. To better understand the influence of the endocrine system in hair growth, we analyzed the mRNA expression of IGF-1 gene. It is a potent mitogen supporting cell growth and survival 23 and also plays a role to increase hair thickness In addition, PEO effectively stimulated hair growth in an animal model via several mechanisms and thus could be used as a therapeutic or preventive alternative medicine for hair loss in humans.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Toxicol Res v. Toxicol Res. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Peppermint Mentha piperita is a plant native to Europe and has been widely used as a carminative and gastric stimulant worldwide. Keywords: Alkaline phosphatase, Hair growth, Hair follicle, Insulin-like growth factor-1, Peppermint oil. Table 1. Composition of peppermint oil and jojoba oil. Open in a separate window. The back skins of the mice were shaved and test compounds were topically applied for 4 wks. A transverse view of hair follicles, B vertical view of hair follicles.
Table 2. References 1. Stough D. Psychological effect, pathophysiology, and management of androgenetic alopecia in men. Mayo Clin. Shapiro J. Hair regrowth therapeutic agents. Buhl A. Minoxidil sulfate is the active metabolite that stimulates hair follicles. Molecular mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia. Messenger A. Minoxidil: mechanisms of action on hair growth. Hills J. The mechanism of action of peppermint oil on gastrointestinal smooth muscle: an analysis using patch clamp electrophysiology and isolated tissue pharmacology in rabbit and guinea pig. Inoue T. Effect of peppermint Mentha piperita L. Comar K. Herbal remedies in gastroenterology. Schelz Z. Antimicrobial and antiplasmid activities of essential oils. Han J. Effect of minoxidil on proliferation and apoptosis in dermal papilla cells of human hair follicle.
Dermatol Sci. Wester R. Minoxidil stimulates cutaneous blood flow in human balding scalps: pharmacodynamics measured by laser Doppler velocimetry and photopulse plethysmography. Invest Dermatol. Headington J. Hair follicle biology and topical minoxidil: possible mechanisms of action. Mori O. The effect of topical minoxidil on hair follicular cycles of rats.
A comprehensive guide for the accurate classification of murine hair follicles in distinct hair cycle stages. Chen C. Simultaneous effects of tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate TPGS on local hair growth promotion and systemic absorption of topically applied minoxidil in a mouse model. Chiyotani A. Aqil M. Status of terpenes as skin penetration enhancers. Drug Discovery Today. Cal K. Effect of physicochemical properties of cyclic terpenes on their ex vivo skin absorption and elimination kinetics. Jain A. Transdermal drug delivery of imipramine hydrochloride. Controlled Release.
Iida M. Hair cycle-dependent changes of alkaline phosphatase activity in the mesenchyme and epithelium in mouse vibrissal follicles. Growth Differ. Unlike the case of the human brain, the cetacean optic chiasm is completely crossed, [ citation needed ] and there is behavioral evidence for hemispheric dominance for vision. The evolution of encephalization in cetaceans is similar to that in primates. The most promising suggests that cetacean brain size and complexity increased to support complex social relations. Some research shows that dolphins, among other animals, understand concepts such as numerical continuity, though not necessarily counting.
Several researchers observing animals' ability to learn set formation tend to rank dolphins at about the level of elephants in intelligence,  and show that dolphins do not surpass other highly intelligent animals in problem solving. Dolphin group sizes vary quite dramatically. River dolphins usually congregate in fairly small groups from 6 to 12 in number or, in some species, singly or in pairs. The individuals in these small groups know and recognize one another. Other species such as the oceanic pantropical spotted dolphin , common dolphin and spinner dolphin travel in large groups of hundreds of individuals. It is unknown whether every member of the group is acquainted with every other. However, large packs can act as a single cohesive unit — observations show that if an unexpected disturbance, such as a shark approach, occurs from the flank or from beneath the group, the group moves in near-unison to avoid the threat.
This means that the dolphins must be aware not only of their near neighbors but also of other individuals nearby — in a similar manner to which humans perform " audience waves ". This is achieved by sight, and possibly also echolocation. One hypothesis proposed by Jerison is that members of a pod of dolphins are able to share echolocation results with each other to create a better understanding of their surroundings. Resident orcas living in British Columbia, Canada, and Washington, United States live in extremely stable family groups. The basis of this social structure is the matriline, consisting of a mother and her offspring, who travel with her for life. Male orcas never leave their mothers' pods, while female offspring may branch off to form their own matriline if they have many offspring of their own.
Males have a particularly strong bond with their mother, and travel with them their entire lives, which can exceed 50 years. Relationships in the orca population can be discovered through their vocalizations. Matrilines who share a common ancestor from only a few generations back share mostly the same dialect, comprising a pod. Pods who share some calls indicate a common ancestor from many generations back, and make up a clan. The orcas use these dialects to avoid inbreeding.
They mate outside the clan, which is determined by the different vocalizations. There is evidence that other species of dolphins may also have dialects. In bottlenose dolphin studies by Wells in Sarasota , Florida , and Smolker in Shark Bay , Australia , females of a community are all linked either directly or through a mutual association in an overall social structure known as fission-fusion.
Groups of the strongest association are known as "bands", and their composition can remain stable over years. There is some genetic evidence that band members may be related, but these bands are not necessarily limited to a single matrilineal line. There is no evidence that bands compete with each other. In the same research areas, as well as in Moray Firth , Scotland , males form strong associations of two to three individuals, with a coefficient of association between 70 and These groups of males are known as "alliances", and members often display synchronous behaviors such as respiration, jumping, and breaching.
Alliance composition is stable on the order of tens of years, and may provide a benefit for the acquisition of females for mating. The complex social strategies of marine mammals such as bottlenose dolphins, "provide interesting parallels" with the social strategies of elephants and chimpanzees. Dolphins are known to engage in complex play behavior, which includes such things as producing stable underwater toroidal air-core vortex rings or " bubble rings ".
The dolphin will often then examine its creation visually and with sonar. They also appear to enjoy biting the vortex-rings they have created, so that they burst into many separate normal bubbles and then rise quickly to the surface. Many dolphin species also play by riding in waves, whether natural waves near the shoreline in a method akin to human "body-surfing", or within the waves induced by the bow of a moving boat in a behavior known as bow riding.
There have been instances in captivity of various species of dolphin and porpoise helping and interacting across species, including helping beached whales. Aside from having exhibited the ability to learn complex tricks, dolphins have also demonstrated the ability to produce creative responses. The two test subjects were two rough-toothed dolphins Steno bredanensis , named Malia a regular show performer at Sea Life Park and Hou a research subject at adjacent Oceanic Institute. The experiment tested when and whether the dolphins would identify that they were being rewarded with fish for originality in behavior and was very successful.
However, since only two dolphins were involved in the experiment, the study is difficult to generalize. Starting with the dolphin named Malia, the method of the experiment was to choose a particular behavior exhibited by her each day and reward each display of that behavior throughout the day's session. At the start of each new day Malia would present the prior day's behavior, but only when a new behavior was exhibited was a reward given. All behaviors exhibited were, at least for a time, known behaviors of dolphins. After approximately two weeks Malia apparently exhausted "normal" behaviors and began to repeat performances. This was not rewarded.
According to Pryor, the dolphin became almost despondent. However, at the sixteenth session without novel behavior, the researchers were presented with a flip they had never seen before. This was reinforced. She began offering us all kinds of behavior that we hadn't seen in such a mad flurry that finally we could hardly choose what to throw fish at". The second test subject, Hou, took thirty-three sessions to reach the same stage. On each occasion the experiment was stopped when the variability of dolphin behavior became too complex to make further positive reinforcement meaningful.
The same experiment was repeated with humans, and it took the volunteers about the same length of time to figure out what was being asked of them. After an initial period of frustration or anger, the humans realised they were being rewarded for novel behavior. In dolphins this realisation produced excitement and more and more novel behaviors — in humans it mostly just produced relief. Captive orcas have displayed responses indicating they get bored with activities. For instance, when Paul Spong worked with the orca Skana, he researched her visual skills. However, after performing favorably in the 72 trials per day, Skana suddenly began consistently getting every answer wrong. Spong concluded that a few fish were not enough motivation.
He began playing music, which seemed to provide Skana with much more motivation. At the Institute for Marine Mammal Studies in Mississippi, it has also been observed that the resident dolphins seem to show an awareness of the future. The dolphins are trained to keep their own tank clean by retrieving rubbish and bringing it to a keeper, to be rewarded with a fish. However, one dolphin, named Kelly, has apparently learned a way to get more fish, by hoarding the rubbish under a rock at the bottom of the pool and bringing it up one small piece at a time.
As of [update] , scientists have observed wild bottlenose dolphins in Shark Bay , Western Australia using a basic tool. When searching for food on the sea floor, many of these dolphins were seen tearing off pieces of sponge and wrapping them around their rostra , presumably to prevent abrasions and facilitate digging. Dolphins emit two distinct kinds of acoustic signals, which are called whistles and clicks :. A unique signature whistle develops quite early in a dolphin's life, and it appears to be created in imitation of the signature whistle of the dolphin's mother.
Xitco reported the ability of dolphins to eavesdrop passively on the active echolocative inspection of an object by another dolphin. Herman calls this effect the "acoustic flashlight" hypothesis, and may be related to findings by both Herman and Xitco on the comprehension of variations on the pointing gesture, including human pointing, dolphin postural pointing, and human gaze, in the sense of a redirection of another individual's attention , an ability which may require theory of mind.
The environment where dolphins live makes experiments much more expensive and complicated than for many other species; additionally, the fact that cetaceans can emit and hear sounds which are believed to be their main means of communication in a range of frequencies much wider than humans can means that sophisticated equipment, which was scarcely available in the past, is needed to record and analyse them. For example, clicks can contain significant energy in frequencies greater than kHz for comparison, it is unusual for a human to be able to hear sounds above 20 kHz , requiring that equipment have a sampling rates of at least kHz; MHz -capable hardware is often used.
In addition to the acoustic communication channel, the visual modality is also significant. The contrasting pigmentation of the body may be used, for example with "flashes" of the hypopigmented ventral area of some species, as can the production of bubble streams during signature whistling. Also, much of the synchronous and cooperative behaviors, as described in the Behavior section of this entry, as well as cooperative foraging methods, likely are managed at least partly by visual means. Experiments have shown that they can learn human sign language and can use whistles for 2-way human—animal communication. Phoenix learned whistles, and Akeakamai learned sign language.
Both dolphins understood the significance of the ordering of tasks in a sentence. A study conducted by Jason Bruck of the University of Chicago showed that bottlenose dolphins can remember whistles of other dolphins they had lived with after 20 years of separation. Each dolphin has a unique whistle that functions like a name, allowing the marine mammals to keep close social bonds. The new research shows that dolphins have the longest memory yet known in any species other than humans. Self-awareness , though not well defined scientifically, is believed to be the precursor to more advanced processes like meta-cognitive reasoning thinking about thinking that are typical of humans. Scientific research in this field has suggested that bottlenose dolphins , alongside elephants and great apes , possess self-awareness.
The most widely used test for self-awareness in animals is the mirror test , developed by Gordon Gallup in the s, in which a temporary dye is placed on an animal's body, and the animal is then presented with a mirror. In , Marten and Psarakos used television to test dolphin self-awareness. They concluded that their evidence suggested self-awareness rather than social behavior.
While this particular study has not been repeated since then, dolphins have since passed the mirror test. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Further information: Tool use by animals. Further information: Whale sound and Human-animal communication. Cetaceans portal Oceans portal. The Guardian. Dale A.Physcomitrella patens. Of Mice And Men Comparative Analysis, Graham J. Hair follicle biology and topical minoxidil: Of Mice And Men Comparative Analysis mechanisms of action.