✪✪✪ Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay
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They sent the boy to Turin , the capital of Savoy which included Piedmont, in what is now Italy , to complete his conversion. This resulted in his having to give up his Genevan citizenship, although he would later revert to Calvinism to regain it. In converting to Catholicism, both de Warens and Rousseau were likely reacting to Calvinism's insistence on the total depravity of man. Leo Damrosch writes: "An eighteenth-century Genevan liturgy still required believers to declare 'that we are miserable sinners, born in corruption, inclined to evil, incapable by ourselves of doing good'".
Finding himself on his own, since his father and uncle had more or less disowned him, the teenage Rousseau supported himself for a time as a servant, secretary, and tutor, wandering in Italy Piedmont and Savoy and France. During this time, he lived on and off with de Warens, whom he idolized and called his maman. Flattered by his devotion, de Warens tried to get him started in a profession, and arranged formal music lessons for him. At one point, he briefly attended a seminary with the idea of becoming a priest.
When Rousseau reached 20, de Warens took him as her lover, while intimate also with the steward of her house. A rather profligate spender, she had a large library and loved to entertain and listen to music. She and her circle, comprising educated members of the Catholic clergy, introduced Rousseau to the world of letters and ideas. Rousseau had been an indifferent student, but during his 20s, which were marked by long bouts of hypochondria , he applied himself in earnest to the study of philosophy, mathematics, and music. At 25, he came into a small inheritance from his mother and used a portion of it to repay de Warens for her financial support of him.
At 27, he took a job as a tutor in Lyon. His system, intended to be compatible with typography , is based on a single line, displaying numbers representing intervals between notes and dots and commas indicating rhythmic values. Believing the system was impractical, the Academy rejected it, though they praised his mastery of the subject, and urged him to try again. He befriended Denis Diderot that year, connecting over the discussion of literary endeavors.
From to , Rousseau had an honorable but ill-paying post as a secretary to the Comte de Montaigue, the French ambassador to Venice. This awoke in him a lifelong love for Italian music, particularly opera:. I had brought with me from Paris the prejudice of that city against Italian music; but I had also received from nature a sensibility and niceness of distinction which prejudice cannot withstand. I soon contracted that passion for Italian music with which it inspires all those who are capable of feeling its excellence.
In listening to barcaroles , I found I had not yet known what singing was Rousseau's employer routinely received his stipend as much as a year late and paid his staff irregularly. In his letter to Madame de Francueil in , he first pretended that he wasn't rich enough to raise his children, but in Book IX of the Confessions he gave the true reasons of his choice: "I trembled at the thought of intrusting them to a family ill brought up, to be still worse educated. The risk of the education of the foundling hospital was much less". Ten years later, Rousseau made inquiries about the fate of his son, but no record could be found.
When Rousseau subsequently became celebrated as a theorist of education and child-rearing, his abandonment of his children was used by his critics, including Voltaire and Edmund Burke , as the basis for arguments ad hominem. Rousseau's ideas were the result of an almost obsessive dialogue with writers of the past, filtered in many cases through conversations with Diderot.
In , Rousseau was paying daily visits to Diderot, who had been thrown into the fortress of Vincennes under a lettre de cachet for opinions in his " Lettre sur les aveugles ", that hinted at materialism , a belief in atoms , and natural selection. According to science historian Conway Zirkle , Rousseau saw the concept of natural selection "as an agent for improving the human species. He wrote that while walking to Vincennes about three miles from Paris , he had a revelation that the arts and sciences were responsible for the moral degeneration of mankind, who were basically good by nature.
Rousseau's Discourse on the Arts and Sciences was awarded the first prize and gained him significant fame. Rousseau continued his interest in music. The king was so pleased by the work that he offered Rousseau a lifelong pension. To the exasperation of his friends, Rousseau turned down the great honor, bringing him notoriety as "the man who had refused a king's pension". He also turned down several other advantageous offers, sometimes with a brusqueness bordering on truculence that gave offense and caused him problems. The same year, the visit of a troupe of Italian musicians to Paris, and their performance of Giovanni Battista Pergolesi 's La serva padrona , prompted the Querelle des Bouffons , which pitted protagonists of French music against supporters of the Italian style.
Rousseau as noted above, was an enthusiastic supporter of the Italians against Jean-Philippe Rameau and others, making an important contribution with his Letter on French Music. On returning to Geneva in , Rousseau reconverted to Calvinism and regained his official Genevan citizenship. In , Rousseau completed his second major work, the Discourse on the Origin and Basis of Inequality Among Men the Discourse on Inequality , which elaborated on the arguments of the Discourse on the Arts and Sciences. He resented being at Mme. Diderot later described Rousseau as being "false, vain as Satan, ungrateful, cruel, hypocritical, and wicked He sucked ideas from me, used them himself, and then affected to despise me".
Rousseau's break with the Encyclopedistes coincided with the composition of his three major works, in all of which he emphasized his fervent belief in a spiritual origin of man's soul and the universe, in contradistinction to the materialism of Diderot, La Mettrie and D'Holbach. These men truly liked Rousseau and enjoyed his ability to converse on any subject, but they also used him as a way of getting back at Louis XV and the political faction surrounding his mistress, Madame de Pompadour. Even with them, however, Rousseau went too far, courting rejection when he criticized the practice of tax farming , in which some of them engaged. The book's rhapsodic descriptions of the natural beauty of the Swiss countryside struck a chord in the public and may have helped spark the subsequent nineteenth-century craze for Alpine scenery.
Even his friend Antoine-Jacques Roustan felt impelled to write a polite rebuttal of the chapter on Civil Religion in the Social Contract , which implied that the concept of a Christian republic was paradoxical since Christianity taught submission rather than participation in public affairs. Rousseau helped Roustan find a publisher for the rebuttal. Rousseau published Emile, or On Education in May. A famous section of Emile , "The Profession of Faith of a Savoyard Vicar", was intended to be a defense of religious belief. Rousseau's choice of a Catholic vicar of humble peasant background plausibly based on a kindly prelate he had met as a teenager as a spokesman for the defense of religion was in itself a daring innovation for the time.
The vicar's creed was that of Socinianism or Unitarianism as it is called today. Because it rejected original sin and divine revelation , both Protestant and Catholic authorities took offense. Moreover, Rousseau advocated the opinion that, insofar as they lead people to virtue, all religions are equally worthy, and that people should therefore conform to the religion in which they have been brought up.
This religious indifferentism caused Rousseau and his books to be banned from France and Geneva. He was condemned from the pulpit by the Archbishop of Paris, his books were burned and warrants were issued for his arrest. A sympathetic observer, David Hume "professed no surprise when he learned that Rousseau's books were banned in Geneva and elsewhere". Rousseau, he wrote, "has not had the precaution to throw any veil over his sentiments; and, as he scorns to dissemble his contempt for established opinions, he could not wonder that all the zealots were in arms against him. The liberty of the press is not so secured in any country After Rousseau's Emile had outraged the French parliament, an arrest order was issued by parliament against him, causing him to flee to Switzerland.
Subsequently, when the Swiss authorities also proved unsympathetic to him—condemning both Emile , and also The Social Contract —Voltaire issued an invitation to Rousseau to come and reside with him, commenting that: "I shall always love the author of the 'Vicaire savoyard' whatever he has done, and whatever he may do Let him come here [to Ferney]! He must come! I shall receive him with open arms. He shall be master here more than I. I shall treat him like my own son. Rousseau later expressed regret that he had not replied to Voltaire's invitation. On 11 July , Rousseau wrote to Frederick, describing how he had been driven from France, from Geneva, and from Bern; and seeking Frederick's protection.
He also mentioned that he had criticized Frederick in the past and would continue to be critical of Frederick in the future, stating however: "Your Majesty may dispose of me as you like. We must succor this poor unfortunate. His only offense is to have strange opinions which he thinks are good ones. I will send a hundred crowns, from which you will be kind enough to give him as much as he needs.
I think he will accept them in kind more readily than in cash. If we were not at war, if we were not ruined, I would build him a hermitage with a garden, where he could live as I believe our first fathers did I think poor Rousseau has missed his vocation; he was obviously born to be a famous anchorite, a desert father, celebrated for his austerities and flagellations I conclude that the morals of your savage are as pure as his mind is illogical. Rousseau, touched by the help he received from Frederick, stated that from then onwards he took a keen interest in Frederick's activities.
As the Seven Years' War was about to end, Rousseau wrote to Frederick again, thanking him for the help received and urging him to put an end to military activities and to endeavor to keep his subjects happy instead. Frederick made no known reply, but commented to Keith that Rousseau had given him a "scolding". In the meantime, the local ministers had become aware of the apostasies in some of his writings, and resolved not to let him stay in the vicinity.
He wrote back asking to be excused due to his inability to sit for a long time due to his ailment. Around midnight of 6—7 September , stones were thrown at the house Rousseau was staying in, and some glass windows were shattered. Since he wanted to remain in Switzerland, Rousseau decided to accept an offer to move to a tiny island, the Ile de St. Although it was within the Canton of Bern , from where he had been expelled two years previously, he was informally assured that he could move into this island house without fear of arrest, and he did so 10 September Here, despite the remoteness of his retreat, visitors sought him out as a celebrity. He replied, requesting permission to extend his stay, and offered to be incarcerated in any place within their jurisdiction with only a few books in his possession and permission to walk occasionally in a garden while living at his own expense.
The Senate's response was to direct Rousseau to leave the island, and all Bernese territory, within twenty four hours. On 29 October he left the Ile de St. At this point:. He subsequently decided to accept Hume 's invitation to go to England. On 9 December , having secured a passport from the French government to come to Paris, Rousseau left Strasbourg for Paris where he arrived after a week, and lodged in a palace of his friend, the Prince of Conti.
Here he met Hume, and also numerous friends, and well wishers, and became a very conspicuous figure in the city. It is impossible to express or imagine the enthusiasm of this nation in Rousseau's favor No person ever so much enjoyed their attention Voltaire and everybody else are quite eclipsed. One significant meeting could have taken place at this time: Diderot wanted to reconcile and make amends with Rousseau. However, both Diderot and Rousseau wanted the other person to take the initiative, so the two did not meet.
On 1 January , Grimm wrote a report to his clientele , in which he included a letter said to have been written by Frederick the Great to Rousseau. This letter had actually been composed by Horace Walpole as a playful hoax. The letter soon found wide publicity;    Hume is believed to have been present, and to have participated in its creation. After a four-day journey to Calais , where they stayed for two nights, the travelers embarked on a ship to Dover. On 13 January they arrived in London. Garrick was himself performing in a comedy by himself, and also in a tragedy by Voltaire. At this time, Hume had a favorable opinion of Rousseau; in a letter to Madame de Brabantane, Hume wrote that after observing Rousseau carefully he had concluded that he had never met a more affable and virtuous person.
According to Hume, Rousseau was "gentle, modest, affectionate, disinterested, of extreme sensitivity". An offer came to lodge him in a Welsh monastery, and he was inclined to accept it, but Hume persuaded him to move to Chiswick. Hume and Rousseau would never meet again. On 3 April a daily newspaper published the letter constituting Horace Walpole's hoax on Rousseau - without mentioning Walpole as the actual author; that the editor of the publication was Hume's personal friend compounded Rousseau's grief.
Gradually articles critical of Rousseau started appearing in the British press; Rousseau felt that Hume, as his host, ought to have defended him. Moreover, in Rousseau's estimate, some of the public criticism contained details to which only Hume was privy. About this time, Voltaire anonymously published his Letter to Dr. Pansophe in which he gave extracts from many of Rousseau's prior statements which were critical of life in England; the most damaging portions of Voltaire's writeup were reprinted in a London periodical.
Rousseau now decided that there was a conspiracy afoot to defame him. After some correspondence with Rousseau, which included an eighteen-page letter from Rousseau describing the reasons for his resentment, Hume concluded that Rousseau was losing his mental balance. On learning that Rousseau had denounced him to his Parisian friends, Hume sent a copy of Rousseau's long letter to Madame de Boufflers. She replied stating that, in her estimate, Hume's alleged participation in the composition of Horace Walpole's faux letter was the reason for Rousseau's anger. When Hume learnt that Rousseau was writing the Confessions , he assumed that the present dispute would feature in the book.
Adam Smith, Turgot, Marischal Keith, Horace Walpole, and Mme de Boufflers advised Hume not to make his quarrel with Rousseau public; however, many members of d'Holbach's coterie —particularly, d'Alembert —urged him to reveal his version of the events. In October Hume's version of the quarrel was translated into French and published in France; in November it was published in England. A dozen pamphlets redoubled the bruit.
Walpole printed his version of the dispute; Boswell attacked Walpole; Mme. Rousseau called Hume a traitor; Voltaire sent him additional material on Rousseau's faults and crimes, on his frequentation of "places of ill fame", and on his seditious activities in Switzerland. George III "followed the battle with intense curiosity". After the dispute became public, due in part to comments from notable publishers like Andrew Millar ,  Walpole told Hume that quarrels such as this only end up becoming a source of amusement for Europe. Diderot took a charitable view of the mess: "I knew these two philosophers well.
I could write a play about them that would make you weep, and it would excuse them both. On 22 May , Rousseau reentered France even though an arrest warrant against him was still in place. He had taken an assumed name, but was recognized, and a banquet in his honor was held by the city of Amiens. Initially, Rousseau decided to stay in an estate near Paris belonging to Mirabeau. Subsequently, on 21 June , he moved to a chateau of the Prince of Conti in Trie. Around this time, Rousseau started developing feelings of paranoia, anxiety, and of a conspiracy against him. Most of this was just his imagination at work, but on 29 January , the theatre at Geneva was destroyed through burning, and Voltaire mendaciously accused Rousseau of being the culprit.
Here he practiced botany and completed the Confessions. At this time he expressed regret for placing his children in an orphanage. At Rousseau's suggestion, Coignet composed musical interludes for Rousseau's prose poem Pygmalion ; this was performed in Lyon together with Rousseau's romance The Village Soothsayer to public acclaim. He now supported himself financially by copying music, and continued his study of botany.
These consisted of a series of letters Rousseau wrote to Mme Delessert in Lyon to help her daughters learn the subject. These letters received widespread acclaim when they were eventually published posthumously. In order to defend his reputation against hostile gossip, Rousseau had begun writing the Confessions in In November , these were completed, and although he did not wish to publish them at this time, he began to offer group readings of certain portions of the book. Between December , and May , Rousseau made at least four group readings of his book with the final reading lasting seventeen hours.
I expected a session of seven or eight hours; it lasted fourteen or fifteen. The writing is truly a phenomenon of genius, of simplicity, candor, and courage. How many giants reduced to dwarves! How many obscure but virtuous men restored to their rights and avenged against the wicked by the sole testimony of an honest man! The police called on Rousseau, who agreed to stop the readings. In , Rousseau was invited to present recommendations for a new constitution for the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth , resulting in the Considerations on the Government of Poland , which was to be his last major political work.
Also in , Rousseau began writing his Dialogues: Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques , which was another attempt to reply to his critics. He completed writing it in The book is in the form of three dialogues between two characters; a Frenchman and Rousseau who argue about the merits and demerits of a third character—an author called Jean-Jacques. It has been described as his most unreadable work; in the foreword to the book, Rousseau admits that it may be repetitious and disorderly, but he begs the reader's indulgence on the grounds that he needs to defend his reputation from slander before he dies. In , Rousseau had impressed Hume with his physical prowess by spending ten hours at night on the deck in severe weather during the journey by ship from Calais to Dover while Hume was confined to his bunk.
He is one of the most robust men I have ever known," Hume noted. Rousseau was unable to dodge both the carriage and the dog, and was knocked down by the Great Dane. He seems to have suffered a concussion and neurological damage. His health began to decline; Rousseau's friend Corancez described the appearance of certain symptoms which indicate that Rousseau started suffering from epileptic seizures after the accident.
All those who met him in his last days agree that he was in a serene frame of mind at this time. Rousseau later noted, that when he read the question for the essay competition of the Academy of Dijon, which he would go on to win: "Has the rebirth of the arts and sciences contributed to the purification of the morals? Rousseau based his political philosophy on contract theory and his reading of Thomas Hobbes. On the contrary, Rousseau holds that "uncorrupted morals" prevail in the "state of nature". From how many crimes, wars, and murders, from how many horrors and misfortunes might not any one have saved mankind, by pulling up the stakes, or filling up the ditch, and crying to his fellows: Beware of listening to this impostor; you are undone if you once forget that the fruits of the earth belong to us all, and the earth itself to nobody.
In common with other philosophers of the day, Rousseau looked to a hypothetical " state of nature " as a normative guide. In the original condition, humans would have had "no moral relations with or determinate obligations to one another". Another aspect separating humans from other animals is the ability of perfectability , which allows humans to choose in a way which improves their condition. Rousseau asserted that the stage of human development associated with what he called "savages" was the best or optimal in human development, between the less-than-optimal extreme of brute animals on the one hand and the extreme of decadent civilization on the other.
According to Rousseau, as savages had grown less dependant on nature, they had instead become dependant on each other, with society leading to the loss of freedom through the misapplication of perfectability. Rousseau's ideas of human development were highly interconnected with forms of mediation, or the processes that individual humans use to interact with themselves and others while using an alternate perspective or thought process. According to Rousseau, these were developed through the innate perfectibility of humanity. These include a sense of self, morality, pity, and imagination. Rousseau's writings are purposely ambiguous concerning the formation of these processes to the point that mediation is always intrinsically part of humanity's development.
An example of this is the notion that an individual needs an alternative perspective to come to the realization that he or she is a 'self'. As long as differences in wealth and status among families were minimal, the first coming together in groups was accompanied by a fleeting golden age of human flourishing. The development of agriculture, metallurgy, private property, and the division of labour and resulting dependency on one another, however, led to economic inequality and conflict. As population pressures forced them to associate more and more closely, they underwent a psychological transformation: they began to see themselves through the eyes of others and came to value the good opinion of others as essential to their self-esteem.
As humans started to compare themselves with each other, they began to notice that some had qualities differentiating them from others. Following the attachment of importance to human difference, they would have started forming social institutions, according to Rousseau. Those who think themselves the masters of others are indeed greater slaves than they. According to Rousseau, the original forms of government to emerge, monarchy, aristocracy, democracy, were all products of the differing levels of inequality in their societies. The Social Contract outlines the basis for a legitimate political order within a framework of classical republicanism. Published in , it became one of the most influential works of political philosophy in the Western tradition.
In the book, Rousseau sketched the image of a new political system for regaining human freedom. Rousseau claimed that the state of nature was a primitive condition without law or morality, which human beings left for the benefits and necessity of cooperation. As society developed, the division of labor and private property required the human race to adopt institutions of law. In the degenerate phase of society, man is prone to be in frequent competition with his fellow men while also becoming increasingly dependent on them.
This double pressure threatens both his survival and his freedom. According to Rousseau, by joining together into civil society through the social contract and abandoning their claims of natural right , individuals can both preserve themselves and remain free. This is because submission to the authority of the general will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are, collectively, the authors of the law. Although Rousseau argues that sovereignty or the power to make the laws should be in the hands of the people, he also makes a sharp distinction between the sovereign and the government. The government is composed of magistrates, charged with implementing and enforcing the general will.
The "sovereign" is the rule of law, ideally decided on by direct democracy in an assembly. He approved the kind of republican government of the city-state, for which Geneva provided a model—or would have done if renewed on Rousseau's principles. France could not meet Rousseau's criterion of an ideal state because it was too big. Much subsequent controversy about Rousseau's work has hinged on disagreements concerning his claims that citizens constrained to obey the general will are thereby rendered free:. The notion of the general will is wholly central to Rousseau's theory of political legitimacy. It is, however, an unfortunately obscure and controversial notion.
Some commentators see it as no more than the dictatorship of the proletariat or the tyranny of the urban poor such as may perhaps be seen in the French Revolution. Such was not Rousseau's meaning. This is clear from the Discourse on Political Economy , where Rousseau emphasizes that the general will exists to protect individuals against the mass, not to require them to be sacrificed to it. He is, of course, sharply aware that men have selfish and sectional interests which will lead them to try to oppress others. It is for this reason that loyalty to the good of all alike must be a supreme although not exclusive commitment by everyone, not only if a truly general will is to be heeded but also if it is to be formulated successfully in the first place".
A remarkable peculiarity of Social Contract is its logical rigor, which Rousseau had learned in his twenties from mathematics:. Rousseau develops his theory in an almost mathematical manner, deriving statements from the initial thesis that man must keep close to nature. The 'natural' state, with its original liberty and equality, is hindered by man's 'unnatural' involvement in collective activities resulting in inequality which, in turn, infringes on liberty. The purpose of this social contract, which is a kind of tacit agreement, is simply to guarantee equality and, consequently, liberty as the superior social values A number of political statements, particularly about the organization of powers, are derived from the 'axioms' of equality among citizens and their subordination to the general will.
The noblest work in education is to make a reasoning man, and we expect to train a young child by making him reason! This is beginning at the end; this is making an instrument of a result. If children understood how to reason they would not need to be educated. Rousseau's philosophy of education concerns itself not with particular techniques of imparting information and concepts, but rather with developing the pupil's character and moral sense, so that he may learn to practice self-mastery and remain virtuous even in the unnatural and imperfect society in which he will have to live.
Today we would call this the disciplinary method of "natural consequences". Rousseau felt that children learn right and wrong through experiencing the consequences of their acts rather than through physical punishment. Rousseau became an early advocate of developmentally appropriate education; his description of the stages of child development mirrors his conception of the evolution of culture. He divides childhood into stages:. Rousseau recommends that the young adult learn a manual skill such as carpentry, which requires creativity and thought, will keep him out of trouble, and will supply a fallback means of making a living in the event of a change of fortune the most illustrious aristocratic youth to have been educated this way may have been Louis XVI , whose parents had him learn the skill of locksmithing .
The sixteen-year-old is also ready to have a companion of the opposite sex. Although his ideas foreshadowed modern ones in many ways, in one way they do not: Rousseau was a believer in the moral superiority of the patriarchal family on the antique Roman model. This is not an accidental feature of Rousseau's educational and political philosophy; it is essential to his account of the distinction between private, personal relations and the public world of political relations. The private sphere as Rousseau imagines it depends on the subordination of women, for both it and the public political sphere upon which it depends to function as Rousseau imagines it could and should. Rousseau anticipated the modern idea of the bourgeois nuclear family , with the mother at home taking responsibility for the household and for childcare and early education.
Feminists, beginning in the late 18th century with Mary Wollstonecraft in ,  have criticized Rousseau for his confinement of women to the domestic sphere —unless women were domesticated and constrained by modesty and shame, he feared  "men would be tyrannized by women For, given the ease with which women arouse men's senses—men would finally be their victims Rousseau's ideas have influenced progressive "child-centered" education. The theories of educators such as Rousseau's near contemporaries Pestalozzi , Mme. Having converted to Roman Catholicism early in life and returned to the austere Calvinism of his native Geneva as part of his period of moral reform, Rousseau maintained a profession of that religious philosophy and of John Calvin as a modern lawgiver throughout the remainder of his life.
His views on religion presented in his works of philosophy, however, may strike some as discordant with the doctrines of both Catholicism and Calvinism. Although he praised the Bible, he was disgusted by the Christianity of his day. He also repudiated the doctrine of original sin , which plays a large part in Calvinism. In his "Letter to Beaumont", Rousseau wrote, "there is no original perversity in the human heart. In the 18th century, many deists viewed God merely as an abstract and impersonal creator of the universe, likened to a giant machine. Rousseau's deism differed from the usual kind in its emotionality. He saw the presence of God in the creation as good, and separate from the harmful influence of society. Rousseau's attribution of a spiritual value to the beauty of nature anticipates the attitudes of 19th-century Romanticism towards nature and religion.
He defended himself against critics of his religious views in his "Letter to Mgr de Beaumont , the Archbishop of Paris", "in which he insists that freedom of discussion in religious matters is essentially more religious than the attempt to impose belief by force. Rousseau was a successful composer of music, who wrote seven operas as well as music in other forms, and made contributions to music as a theorist. As a composer, his music was a blend of the late Baroque style and the emergent Classical fashion, i. Galant , and he belongs to the same generation of transitional composers as Christoph Willibald Gluck and C. One of his more well-known works is the one-act opera The Village Soothsayer. It contains the duet "Non, Colette n'est point trompeuse," which was later rearranged as a standalone song by Beethoven ,  and the gavotte in scene no.
In his Confessions , Rousseau claims he is "indebted" to her for his passion of music. She housed Rousseau on and off for about 13 years, giving him jobs and responsibilities. He presented his invention to the Academie Des Sciences, but they rejected it, praising his efforts and pushing him to try again. Rameau argued that French music was superior based on the principle that harmony must have priority over melody. Rousseau's plea for melody introduced the idea that in art, the free expression of a creative person is more important than the strict adherence to traditional rules and procedures.
This is now known today as a characteristic of Romanticism. After composing The Village Soothsayer in , Rousseau felt he could not go on working for the theater because he was a moralist who had decided to break from worldly values. The phrase was used by Diderot and also by Montesquieu and by his teacher, the Oratorian friar Nicolas Malebranche. It served to designate the common interest embodied in legal tradition, as distinct from and transcending people's private and particular interests at any particular time. It displayed a rather democratic ideology, as it declared that the citizens of a given nation should carry out whatever actions they deem necessary in their own sovereign assembly.
The concept was also an important aspect of the more radical 17th-century republican tradition of Spinoza , from whom Rousseau differed in important respects, but not in his insistence on the importance of equality:. While Rousseau's notion of the progressive moral degeneration of mankind from the moment civil society established itself diverges markedly from Spinoza's claim that human nature is always and everywhere the same Without the supreme criterion of equality, the general will would indeed be meaningless. When in the depths of the French Revolution the Jacobin clubs all over France regularly deployed Rousseau when demanding radical reforms.
Robespierre and Saint-Just , during the Reign of Terror , regarded themselves to be principled egalitarian republicans, obliged to do away with superfluities and corruption; in this they were inspired most prominently by Rousseau. According to Robespierre, the deficiencies in individuals were rectified by upholding the 'common good' which he conceptualized as the collective will of the people; this idea was derived from Rousseau's General Will. The revolutionaries were also inspired by Rousseau to introduce Deism as the new official civil religion of France:.
Ceremonial and symbolic occurrences of the more radical phases of the Revolution invoked Rousseau and his core ideas. Rousseau's influence on the French Revolution was noted by Edmund Burke , who critiqued Rousseau in " Reflections on the Revolution in France ," and this critique reverberated throughout Europe, leading Catherine the Great to ban his works. According to some scholars, Rousseau exercised minimal influence on the Founding Fathers of the United States , despite similarities between their ideas.
They shared beliefs regarding the self-evidence that "all men are created equal," and the conviction that citizens of a republic be educated at public expense. A parallel can be drawn between the United States Constitution 's concept of the " general welfare " and Rousseau's concept of the " general will ". Further commonalities exist between Jeffersonian democracy and Rousseau's praise of Switzerland and Corsica's economies of isolated and independent homesteads, and his endorsement of a well-regulated militia, such as those of the Swiss cantons.
However, Will and Ariel Durant have opined that Rousseau had a definite political influence on America. According to them:. The first sign of [Rousseau's] political influence was in the wave of public sympathy that supported active French aid to the American Revolution. Jefferson derived the Declaration of Independence from Rousseau as well as from Locke and Montesquieu. As ambassador to France —89 he absorbed much from both Voltaire and Rousseau The success of the American Revolution raised the prestige of Rousseau's philosophy.
One of Rousseau's most important American followers was textbook writer Noah Webster — , who was influenced by Rousseau's ideas on pedagogy in Emile Webster structured his Speller in accord with Rousseau's ideas about the stages of a child's intellectual development. Rousseau's writings perhaps had an indirect influence on American literature through the writings of Wordsworth and Kant , whose works were important to the New England transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson , as well as on Unitarians such as theologian William Ellery Channing.
The Last of the Mohicans and other American novels reflect republican and egalitarian ideals present alike in Thomas Paine and in English Romantic primitivism. The first to criticize Rousseau were his fellow Philosophes , above all, Voltaire. According to Jacques Barzun, Voltaire was annoyed by the first discourse , and outraged by the second. Voltaire's reading of the second discourse was that Rousseau would like the reader to "walk on all fours" befitting a savage.
Samuel Johnson told his biographer James Boswell , "I think him one of the worst of men; a rascal, who ought to be hunted out of society, as he has been". Jean-Baptiste Blanchard was his leading Catholic opponent. Blanchard rejects Rousseau's negative education, in which one must wait until a child has grown to develop reason. The child would find more benefit from learning in his earliest years. He also disagreed with his ideas about female education, declaring that women are a dependent lot. So removing them from their motherly path is unnatural, as it would lead to the unhappiness of both men and women.
Historian Jacques Barzun states that, contrary to myth, Rousseau was no primitivist; for him:. The model man is the independent farmer, free of superiors and self-governing. This was cause enough for the philosophes' hatred of their former friend. Rousseau's unforgivable crime was his rejection of the graces and luxuries of civilized existence. Voltaire had sung "The superfluous, that most necessary thing. It was the country versus the city—an exasperating idea for them, as was the amazing fact that every new work of Rousseau's was a huge success, whether the subject was politics, theater, education, religion, or a novel about love.
And what part do persons play in all this? They are merely the machine that is set in motion. In fact, are they not merely considered to be the raw material of which the machine is made? Thus the same relationship exists between the legislator and the prince as exists between the agricultural expert and the farmer; and the relationship between the prince and his subjects is the same as that between the farmer and his land.
How high above mankind, then, has this writer on public affairs been placed? Bastiat believed that Rousseau wished to ignore forms of social order created by the people—viewing them as a thoughtless mass to be shaped by philosophers. Bastiat, who is considered by thinkers associated with the Austrian School of Economics to be one of the precursors of the "spontaneous order",  presented his own vision of what he considered to be the "Natural Order" in a simple economic chain in which multiple parties might interact without necessarily even knowing each other, cooperating and fulfilling each other's needs in accordance with basic economic laws such as supply and demand.
In such a chain, to produce clothing, multiple parties have to act independently— e. Those persons engage in economic exchange by nature, and don't need to be ordered to, nor do their efforts need to be centrally coordinated. Such chains are present in every branch of human activity, in which individuals produce or exchange goods and services, and together, naturally create a complex social order that does not require external inspiration, central coordination of efforts, or bureaucratic control to benefit society as a whole.
This, according to Bastiat, is a proof that humanity itself is capable of creating a complex socioeconomic order that might be superior to an arbitrary vision of a philosopher. Bastiat also believed that Rousseau contradicted himself when presenting his views concerning human nature; if nature is "sufficiently invincible to regain its empire", why then would it need philosophers to direct it back to a natural state? Conversely, he believed that humanity would choose what it would have without philosophers to guide it, in accordance with the laws of economy and human nature itself.
The Marquis de Sade 's Justine, or the Misfortunes of Virtue partially parodied and used as inspiration Rousseau's sociological and political concepts in the Discourse on Inequality and The Social Contract. Concepts such as the state of nature, civilization being the catalyst for corruption and evil, and humans "signing" a contract to mutually give up freedoms for the protection of rights, particularly referenced. The necessity mutually to render one another happy cannot legitimately exist save between two persons equally furnished with the capacity to do one another hurt and, consequently, between two persons of commensurate strength: such an association can never come into being unless a contract [ un pacte ] is immediately formed between these two persons, which obligates each to employ against each other no kind of force but what will not be injurious to either.
Edmund Burke formed an unfavorable impression of Rousseau when the latter visited England with Hume and later drew a connection between Rousseau's egoistic philosophy and his personal vanity, saying Rousseau "entertained no principle With this vice he was possessed to a degree little short of madness". Charles Dudley Warner wrote about Rousseau in his essay, Equality ; "Rousseau borrowed from Hobbes as well as from Locke in his conception of popular sovereignty; but this was not his only lack of originality.
His discourse on primitive society, his unscientific and unhistoric notions about the original condition of man, were those common in the middle of the eighteenth century. In , Irving Babbitt , founder of a movement called the " New Humanism ", wrote a critique of what he called "sentimental humanitarianism", for which he blamed Rousseau. Lovejoy in During the Cold War, Rousseau was criticized for his association with nationalism and its attendant abuses, for example in Talmon, Jacob Leib , The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy.
Political scientist J. Maloy states that "the twentieth century added Nazism and Stalinism to Jacobinism on the list of horrors for which Rousseau could be blamed. Rousseau was considered to have advocated just the sort of invasive tampering with human nature which the totalitarian regimes of mid-century had tried to instantiate. Melzer also believes that in admitting that people's talents are unequal, Rousseau therefore tacitly condones the tyranny of the few over the many.
Engel, on the other hand, Rousseau's nationalism anticipated modern theories of "imagined communities" that transcend social and religious divisions within states. On similar grounds, one of Rousseau's strongest critics during the second half of the 20th century was political philosopher Hannah Arendt. Using Rousseau's thought as an example, Arendt identified the notion of sovereignty with that of the general will. According to her, it was this desire to establish a single, unified will based on the stifling of opinion in favor of public passion that contributed to the excesses of the French Revolution. The German writers Goethe , Schiller , and Herder have stated that Rousseau's writings inspired them.Retrieved 18 April Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay their stature other white freemason lodges in America did not Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay them Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay and so Hall began to help other black Masonic lodges across the country to Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay their own cause - to progress as a community much ado about nothing wedding scene despite Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay difficulties brought to them by racists. He wrote back asking to be excused due to his inability to sit for People Should Be Prosecuted For Cyberbullying long time due to Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay ailment. Blackwood, William Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay theory of democracy. Internet Treatment Of Women In Othello Essay things research paper pdf