⌚ Life Without Water Energy Essay

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Life Without Water Energy Essay

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Integrated chlorophyll fluorometer — gas exchange systems allow a more precise measure of photosynthetic response and mechanisms. Photosynthesis measurement systems are not designed to directly measure the amount of light absorbed by the leaf. But analysis of chlorophyll-fluorescence, P and Pabsorbance and gas exchange measurements reveal detailed information about e. With some instruments, even wavelength-dependency of the photosynthetic efficiency can be analyzed.

A phenomenon known as quantum walk increases the efficiency of the energy transport of light significantly. In the photosynthetic cell of an algae, bacterium, or plant, there are light-sensitive molecules called chromophores arranged in an antenna-shaped structure named a photocomplex. When a photon is absorbed by a chromophore, it is converted into a quasiparticle referred to as an exciton , which jumps from chromophore to chromophore towards the reaction center of the photocomplex, a collection of molecules that traps its energy in a chemical form that makes it accessible for the cell's metabolism.

The exciton's wave properties enable it to cover a wider area and try out several possible paths simultaneously, allowing it to instantaneously "choose" the most efficient route, where it will have the highest probability of arriving at its destination in the minimum possible time. Because that quantum walking takes place at temperatures far higher than quantum phenomena usually occur, it is only possible over very short distances, due to obstacles in the form of destructive interference that come into play. These obstacles cause the particle to lose its wave properties for an instant before it regains them once again after it is freed from its locked position through a classic "hop". The movement of the electron towards the photo center is therefore covered in a series of conventional hops and quantum walks.

Early photosynthetic systems, such as those in green and purple sulfur and green and purple nonsulfur bacteria , are thought to have been anoxygenic , and used various other molecules than water as electron donors. Green and purple sulfur bacteria are thought to have used hydrogen and sulfur as electron donors. Green nonsulfur bacteria used various amino and other organic acids as an electron donor. Purple nonsulfur bacteria used a variety of nonspecific organic molecules. The use of these molecules is consistent with the geological evidence that Earth's early atmosphere was highly reducing at that time.

Fossils of what are thought to be filamentous photosynthetic organisms have been dated at 3. The main source of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere derives from oxygenic photosynthesis , and its first appearance is sometimes referred to as the oxygen catastrophe. Geological evidence suggests that oxygenic photosynthesis, such as that in cyanobacteria , became important during the Paleoproterozoic era around 2 billion years ago. Modern photosynthesis in plants and most photosynthetic prokaryotes is oxygenic. Oxygenic photosynthesis uses water as an electron donor, which is oxidized to molecular oxygen O 2 in the photosynthetic reaction center.

Several groups of animals have formed symbiotic relationships with photosynthetic algae. These are most common in corals , sponges and sea anemones. It is presumed that this is due to the particularly simple body plans and large surface areas of these animals compared to their volumes. This allows the mollusks to survive solely by photosynthesis for several months at a time. An even closer form of symbiosis may explain the origin of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have many similarities with photosynthetic bacteria, including a circular chromosome , prokaryotic-type ribosome , and similar proteins in the photosynthetic reaction center.

Therefore, chloroplasts may be photosynthetic bacteria that adapted to life inside plant cells. Like mitochondria , chloroplasts possess their own DNA, separate from the nuclear DNA of their plant host cells and the genes in this chloroplast DNA resemble those found in cyanobacteria. The CoRR Hypothesis proposes that this co-location of genes with their gene products is required for redox regulation of gene expression, and accounts for the persistence of DNA in bioenergetic organelles.

Symbiotic and kleptoplastic organisms excluded:. Except for the euglenids, which is found within the Excavata , all of them belong to the Diaphoretickes. Archaeplastida and the photosynthetic Paulinella got their plastids— which are surrounded by two membranes, through primary endosymbiosis in two separate events by engulfing a cyanobacterium. The plastids in all the other groups have either a red or green algal origin, and are referred to as the "red lineages" and the "green lineages". In dinoflaggelates and euglenids the plastids are surrounded by three membranes, and in the remaining lines by four. A nucleomorph , remnants of the original algal nucleus located between the inner and outer membranes of the plastid, is present in the cryptophytes from a red algae and chlorarachniophytes from a green algae.

While able to perform photosynthesis, many of these eukaryotic groups are mixotrophs and practice heterotrophy to various degrees. The biochemical capacity to use water as the source for electrons in photosynthesis evolved once, in a common ancestor of extant cyanobacteria formerly called blue-green algae , which are the only prokaryotes performing oxygenic photosynthesis. The geological record indicates that this transforming event took place early in Earth's history, at least — million years ago Ma , and, it is speculated, much earlier. A clear paleontological window on cyanobacterial evolution opened about Ma, revealing an already-diverse biota of Cyanobacteria.

Cyanobacteria remained the principal primary producers of oxygen throughout the Proterozoic Eon — Ma , in part because the redox structure of the oceans favored photoautotrophs capable of nitrogen fixation. Cyanobacteria remain critical to marine ecosystems as primary producers of oxygen in oceanic gyres, as agents of biological nitrogen fixation, and, in modified form, as the plastids of marine algae. Although some of the steps in photosynthesis are still not completely understood, the overall photosynthetic equation has been known since the 19th century. Jan van Helmont began the research of the process in the midth century when he carefully measured the mass of the soil used by a plant and the mass of the plant as it grew. After noticing that the soil mass changed very little, he hypothesized that the mass of the growing plant must come from the water, the only substance he added to the potted plant.

His hypothesis was partially accurate — much of the gained mass also comes from carbon dioxide as well as water. However, this was a signaling point to the idea that the bulk of a plant's biomass comes from the inputs of photosynthesis, not the soil itself. Joseph Priestley , a chemist and minister, discovered that when he isolated a volume of air under an inverted jar and burned a candle in it which gave off CO 2 , the candle would burn out very quickly, much before it ran out of wax. He further discovered that a mouse could similarly "injure" air. He then showed that the air that had been "injured" by the candle and the mouse could be restored by a plant.

In , Jan Ingenhousz repeated Priestley's experiments. He discovered that it was the influence of sunlight on the plant that could cause it to revive a mouse in a matter of hours. In , Jean Senebier , a Swiss pastor, botanist, and naturalist, demonstrated that green plants consume carbon dioxide and release oxygen under the influence of light. Thus, the basic reaction by which photosynthesis is used to produce food such as glucose was outlined. Cornelis Van Niel made key discoveries explaining the chemistry of photosynthesis. By studying purple sulfur bacteria and green bacteria he was the first to demonstrate that photosynthesis is a light-dependent redox reaction, in which hydrogen reduces donates its — electron to carbon dioxide.

Robert Emerson discovered two light reactions by testing plant productivity using different wavelengths of light. With the red alone, the light reactions were suppressed. When blue and red were combined, the output was much more substantial. Thus, there were two photosystems, one absorbing up to nm wavelengths, the other up to nm. PSI contains only chlorophyll "a", PSII contains primarily chlorophyll "a" with most of the available chlorophyll "b", among other pigments. These include phycobilins, which are the red and blue pigments of red and blue algae respectively, and fucoxanthol for brown algae and diatoms. Robert Hill thought that a complex of reactions consisted of an intermediate to cytochrome b 6 now a plastoquinone , and that another was from cytochrome f to a step in the carbohydrate-generating mechanisms.

These are linked by plastoquinone, which does require energy to reduce cytochrome f for it is a sufficient reductant. Further experiments to prove that the oxygen developed during the photosynthesis of green plants came from water, were performed by Hill in and He showed that isolated chloroplasts give off oxygen in the presence of unnatural reducing agents like iron oxalate , ferricyanide or benzoquinone after exposure to light. The Hill reaction [77] is as follows:. Therefore, in light, the electron acceptor is reduced and oxygen is evolved. Samuel Ruben and Martin Kamen used radioactive isotopes to determine that the oxygen liberated in photosynthesis came from the water. Melvin Calvin and Andrew Benson , along with James Bassham , elucidated the path of carbon assimilation the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle in plants.

The carbon reduction cycle is known as the Calvin cycle , which ignores the contribution of Bassham and Benson. Nobel Prize -winning scientist Rudolph A. Marcus was later able to discover the function and significance of the electron transport chain. Otto Heinrich Warburg and Dean Burk discovered the I-quantum photosynthesis reaction that splits the CO 2 , activated by the respiration. In , first experimental evidence for the existence of photophosphorylation in vivo was presented by Otto Kandler using intact Chlorella cells and interpreting his findings as light-dependent ATP formation.

Arnon et al. Louis N. Duysens and Jan Amesz discovered that chlorophyll "a" will absorb one light, oxidize cytochrome f, while chlorophyll "a" and other pigments will absorb another light but will reduce this same oxidized cytochrome, stating the two light reactions are in series. In , Charles Reid Barnes proposed two terms, photosyntax and photosynthesis , for the biological process of synthesis of complex carbon compounds out of carbonic acid, in the presence of chlorophyll, under the influence of light. Over time, the term photosynthesis came into common usage as the term of choice.

Later discovery of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and photophosphorylation necessitated redefinition of the term. After WWII at late at the University of California, Berkeley , the details of photosynthetic carbon metabolism were sorted out by the chemists Melvin Calvin , Andrew Benson, James Bassham and a score of students and researchers utilizing the carbon isotope and paper chromatography techniques.

For that original and ground-breaking work, a Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to Melvin Calvin in At the University of Arizona, detailed gas exchange research on more than 15 species of monocot and dicot uncovered for the first time that differences in leaf anatomy are crucial factors in differentiating photosynthetic capacities among species. This type of anatomy was termed Kranz anatomy in the 19th century by the botanist Gottlieb Haberlandt while studying leaf anatomy of sugarcane. There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis [ clarification needed ] and several corollary factors.

The three main are: [ citation needed ]. Total photosynthesis is limited by a range of environmental factors. These include the amount of light available, the amount of leaf area a plant has to capture light shading by other plants is a major limitation of photosynthesis , rate at which carbon dioxide can be supplied to the chloroplasts to support photosynthesis, the availability of water, and the availability of suitable temperatures for carrying out photosynthesis. The process of photosynthesis provides the main input of free energy into the biosphere, and is one of four main ways in which radiation is important for plant life.

In the early 20th century, Frederick Blackman and Gabrielle Matthaei investigated the effects of light intensity irradiance and temperature on the rate of carbon assimilation. These two experiments illustrate several important points: First, it is known that, in general, photochemical reactions are not affected by temperature. However, these experiments clearly show that temperature affects the rate of carbon assimilation, so there must be two sets of reactions in the full process of carbon assimilation.

These are the light-dependent 'photochemical' temperature-independent stage, and the light-independent, temperature-dependent stage. Second, Blackman's experiments illustrate the concept of limiting factors. Another limiting factor is the wavelength of light. Cyanobacteria, which reside several meters underwater, cannot receive the correct wavelengths required to cause photoinduced charge separation in conventional photosynthetic pigments. To combat this problem, a series of proteins with different pigments surround the reaction center. This unit is called a phycobilisome. As carbon dioxide concentrations rise, the rate at which sugars are made by the light-independent reactions increases until limited by other factors.

RuBisCO , the enzyme that captures carbon dioxide in the light-independent reactions, has a binding affinity for both carbon dioxide and oxygen. When the concentration of carbon dioxide is high, RuBisCO will fix carbon dioxide. However, if the carbon dioxide concentration is low, RuBisCO will bind oxygen instead of carbon dioxide. This process, called photorespiration , uses energy, but does not produce sugars. The salvaging pathway for the products of RuBisCO oxygenase activity is more commonly known as photorespiration , since it is characterized by light-dependent oxygen consumption and the release of carbon dioxide. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Crop Sci. Physiologische Pflanzanatomie. No one can live without it. Water is basic for life. It is transparent, tasteless and odourless chemical substance. It is a basic ingredient of lakes, streams and oceans. It is the fluid of all the living organisms. It is essential for all forms of life. Our body are even comprised of 90 percent water. We all are water. It is comprised of hydrogen and Oxygen. H20 is its formula. It does not provide any calories or other organic substances to the organism who drink it. It can be rain in liquid form and aerosol in fog form. Crystallization results in snow. It has no taste and no smell. This is one of the ideal properties and can be used for many purposes.

It is transparent and non-absorbent. It adopts the colour of the water body in which it is placed or flows. It is invisible in gas state. Its appearance varies with every state. In solid form it looks like a crystal and that is a beauty of this amazing chemical. So in the end its must to say that we cannot survive on this earth without water. It is also essential for animal and plant life. So use it wisely and save for future Generations.

Water is a basic necessity for all life forms. Without water most life forms will cease to exist. Around eighty percent of human body is made up of water and so it very essential for its existence. The healthy functioning of human body requires it to be regularly and sufficiently hydrated. At this juncture humanity has come to a crossroad because of careless use of resources. The available water supply has been consistently going down. The river and other sources of water are being contaminated by factories and human civilization leaving the water unfit for use.

When the available water was found to be insufficient the debate about the careful use and conservation of water started establishing once again the importance of water in human life. Water being an important ingredient needed to sustain life, even human life, we must recognise its importance and do our very best to protect all sources of water. Apart from that it is our duty to conserve whatever water is available to us.

We must make sure that we not only not use up the available reserves but try to create conditions for the better replenishment of water sources. Water is the most essential element to keep a human body healthy and all organs in good condition. A human being needs plenty of water to drink. Water keeps the body temperature regulated. When too much activity or temperature heat up the body, drinking cool water can bring down the temperature.

Life Without Water Energy Essay in Photobiology: Photosynthesis and Photomorphogenesis. Resources Life Without Water Energy Essay your library. While able to perform photosynthesis, many of these eukaryotic groups are mixotrophs and practice heterotrophy Life Without Water Energy Essay various degrees.

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